West Bengal Board Geography Syllabus for Class 12
West Bengal Board Syllabus for Class 12 Geography
One Theory Paper 3 Hours 70 Marks
A. Fundamentals of Human Geography 35 Marks
Unit 1: Human Geography 3
Unit 2: People 5
Unit 3: Human Activities 10
Unit 4: Transport, Communication & Trade 10
Unit 5: Human settlements 5
Unit 6: Map Work 2
B. India: People and Economy 35 Marks
Unit 7: People 5
Unit 8: Human Settlements 4
Unit 9: Resources and Development 12
Unit 10: Transport, Communication and International Trade 7
Unit 11: Geographical Perspective on selected issues and problems 4
Unit 12: Map Work 3
C. Practical Work 30 Marks
Unit 1: Processing of Data and Thematic Mapping 15
Unit 2: Field study or Spatial Information Technology 10
Unit 3: Practical Record Book and Viva Voce 5
A. Fundamentals of Human Geography (70 Periods) 35 Marks
Unit 1: Human Geography: Nature and Scope Periods 3
Unit 2: People Periods 15
Population — distribution, density and growth
Population change-spatial patterns and structure; determinants of population change;
Age-sex ratio; rural-urban composition;
Human development - concept; selected indicators, international comparisons
Unit 3: Human Activities Periods 25
Primary activities - concept and changing trends; gathering, pastoral, mining, subsistence agriculture, modern agriculture; people engaged in agricultural and allied activities – some examples from selected countries.
Secondary activities-concept; manufacturing: types – household, small scale, large scale; agro based and mineral based industries; people engaged in secondary activities – some examples from selected countries.
Tertiary activities-concept; trade, transport and communication; services; people engaged in tertiary activities - some examples from selected countries
Quaternary activities-concept; knowledge based industries; people engaged in quaternary activities - some examples from selected countries
Unit 4: Transport, Communication and Trade Periods 19
Land transport - roads, railways; trans-continental railways.
Water transport- inland waterways; major ocean routes.
Air transport- Intercontinental air routes.
Oil and gas pipelines.
Satellite communication and cyber space.
International trade-Bases and changing patterns; ports as gateways of international trade, role of WTO in International trade.
Unit 5: Human Settlements Periods 8
Settlement types - rural and urban; morphology of cities (case study); distribution of mega
cities; problems of human settlements in developing countries.
Unit 6: Map Work on identification of features based on above units on the outline Political map of World.
Part B. India: People and Economy 70 Periods
Unit 7: People Periods 12
Population : distribution, density and growth; composition of population - linguistic, religious; sex, rural-urban and occupational– polulation change through time and regional variations;
Migration: international, national-causes and consequences;
Human development: selected indicators and regional patterns;
Population, environment and development.
Unit 8: Human Settlements Periods 8
Rural settlements - types and distribution;
Urban settlements - types, distribution and functional classification.
Unit 9: Resources and Development Periods 28
Land resources- general land use; agricultural land use, Geographical conditions and distribution of major crops (Wheat, Rice, Tea, Coffee, Cotton, Jute, Sugarcane and Rubber), agricultural development and problems.
Water resources-availability and utilization-irrigation, domestic, industrial and other uses; scarcity of water and conservation methods-rain water harvesting and watershed management (one case study related with participatory watershed management to be introduced).
Mineral and energy resources- distribution of metallic (Ironore, Copper, Bauxite, Manganese) ; non-metallic (Mica, Salt) minerals; conventional (Coal, Petroleum, Natural gas and Hydro electricity) and non-conventional energy sources (solar, wind, biogas) and conservation.
Industries - types, factors of industrial location; distribution and changing pattern of selected industries-iron and steel, cotton textiles, sugar, petrochemicals, and knowledge based industries; impact of liberalization, privatisation and globalisation on industrial location; industrial clusters.
Planning in India- target area planning (case study); idea of sustainable development (case study).
Unit 10: Transport, Communication and International Trade Periods 12
Transport and communication-roads, railways, waterways and airways: oil and gas pipelines; national electric grids; communication networkings - radio, television, satellite and internet.
International trade- changing pattern of India’s foreign trade; sea ports and their hinterland and airports,
Unit 11: Geographical Perspective on Selected Issues and Problems (One case study to be introduced for each topic) Periods 10
Environmental pollution; urban-waste disposal.
Urbanisation, rural-urban migration; problems of slums.
Unit 12: Map work on locating and labelling of features based on above units on outline political map of India 3 Marks
C. Practical Work
Unit I : Processing of Data and Thematic Mapping (Periods 20)
Sources of data.
Tabulating and processing of data; calculation of averages, measures of central tendency, deviation and rank correlation;
Representation of data- construction of diagrams: bars, circles and flowchart; thematic maps; construction of dot; choropleth and isopleth maps.
Use of computers in data processing and mapping.
Unit II: Field Study or Spatial Information Technology (Periods 10)
Field visit and study: map orientation, observation and preparation of sketch; survey on any one of the local concerns; pollution, ground water changes, land use and land-use changes, poverty, energy issues, soil degradation, impact of floods and drought, catchment area of school, Market survey and
Household survey (any one topic of local concern may be taken up for the study; observation and questionnaire survey may be adopted for the data collection; collected data may be tabulated and analysed with diagrams and maps).
Spatial Information Technology
Introduction to GIS; hardware requirements and software modules; data formats; raster and vector data, data input, editing & topology building; data analysis; overlay & buffer.
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