Rajasthan Board Geography Syllabus for Class 12

Rajasthan Board Syllabus for Class 12 Geography

Fundamentals of Human Geography


1. Human Geography: Nature and Scope


2. People


* Population — distribution, density and growth

* Population change-spatial patterns and structure; determinants of population change;

* Age-sex ratio; rural-urban composition;

* Human development - concept; selected indicators, international comparisons


3.Human Activities


* Primary activities - concept and changing trends; gathering, pastoral, mining,

subsistence agriculture, modern agriculture; people engaged in agricultural and allied

activities - some examples from selected countries.


* Secondary activities-concept; manufacturing: types – household, small scale, large

scale; agro based and mineral based industries; people engaged in secondary activities -

some examples from selected countries.


* Tertiary activities-concept; trade, transport and communication; services; people

engaged in tertiary activities - some examples from selected countries


* Quaternary activities-concept; knowledge based industries; people engaged in

quaternary activities - some examples from selected countries


4.Transport, Communication and Trade


* Land transport - roads, railways; trans-continental railways.

* Water transport- inland waterways; major ocean routes.

* Air transport- Intercontinental air routes.

* Oil and gas pipelines.

* Satellite communication and cyber space.

* International trade-Bases and changing patterns; ports as gateways of international

trade, role of WTO in International trade.


5. Human Settlements


* Settlement types - rural and urban; morphology of cities (case study); distribution of

mega cities; problems of human settlements in developing countries.


6. Map Work on identification of features based on above units on the outline Political

map of World.


7. People


* Population : distribution, density and growth; composition of population - linguistic,

religious; sex, rural-urban and occupational– population change through time and

regional variations;

* Migration: international, national-causes and consequences;

* Human development: selected indicators and regional patterns;


8. Human Settlements


* Rural settlements - types and distribution;


9. Resources and Development


* Land resources- general land use; agricultural land use, Geographical conditions and

distribution of major crops (Wheat, Rice, Tea, Coffee, Cotton, Jute, Sugarcane and

Rubber), agricultural development and problems.


* Water resources-availability and utilization-irrigation, domestic, industrial and other

uses; scarcity of water and conservation methods-rain water harvesting and watershed

management (one case study related with participatory watershed management to be



* Mineral and energy resources- distribution of metallic (Ironore, Copper, Bauxite,

Manganese) ; non-metallic (Mica, Salt) minerals; conventional (Coal, Petroleum,

Natural gas and Hydro electricity) and non-conventional energy sources (solar, wind,

biogas) and conservation.


* Industries - types, factors of industrial location; distribution and changing pattern of

selected industries-iron and steel, cotton textiles, sugar, petrochemicals, and knowledge

based industries; impact of liberalization, privatization and globalization on industrial

location; industrial clusters.


* Planning in India- target area planning (case study); idea of sustainable development

(case study).


* Urban settlements - types, distribution and functional classification.


* Population, environment and development.


10. Transport, Communication and International Trade


* Transport and communication-roads, railways, waterways and airways: oil and gas

pipelines; national electric grids; communication networking - radio, television,

satellite and internet.


* International trade- changing pattern of India’s foreign trade; sea ports and their

hinterland and airports,


11. Geographical Perspective on Selected Issues and Problems (One case study to be

introduced for each topic)


* Environmental pollution; urban-waste disposal.

* Urbanization, rural-urban migration; problems of slums.

* Land Degradation.


12. Map work on locating and labelling of features based on above units on outline political

map of India



Practical Work-


1. Processing of Data and Thematic Mapping


* Sources of data.

* Tabulating and processing of data; calculation of averages, measures of central

tendency, deviation and rank correlation;

* Representation of data- construction of diagrams: bars, circles and flowchart;

thematic maps; construction of dot; choropleth and isopleth maps.

* Use of computers in data processing and mapping.




Plane table survey : Intersection and open traverse


2. Field study or Spatial Information Technology


Field visit and study: map orientation, observation and preparation of sketch; survey on

any one of the local concerns; pollution, ground water changes, land use and land-use

changes, poverty, energy issues, soil degradation, impact of floods and drought,

catchment area of school, Market survey and Household survey (any one topic of local

concern may be taken up for the study; observation and

questionnaire survey may be adopted for the data collection; collected data may be

tabulated and analysed with diagrams and maps).




Spatial Information Technology

Introduction to GIS; hardware requirements and software modules; data formats; raster


3. Practical Record Book and Viva Voce



Prescribed Books-


1. Fundamentals of Human Geogrphy - NCERT's Book Published under Copyright

2. India - Poeple and Economy- NCERT's Book Published under Copyright

3. Practical Work in Geography-II - NCERT's Book Published under Copyright


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