Rajasthan Board Chemistry Syllabus for Class 11


Rajasthan Board Syllabus for Class 11 Chemistry

Time : 3.15 Hours

Total marks : 100

 

Unit I: Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry

 

General Introduction: Importance and scope of chemistry.

 

Historical approach to particulate nature of matter, laws of chemical combination. Dalton’s

atomic theory: concept of elements, atoms and molecules.

 

Atomic and molecular masses mole concept and molar mass: percentage composition,

empirical and molecular formula chemical reactions, stoichiometry and calculations based

on stoichiometry.

 

Unit II: Structure of Atom

 

Discovery of electron, proton and neutron; atomic number, isotopes and isobars. Thomson’s

model and its limitations, Rutherford’s model and its limitations. Bohr’s model and its

limitations, concept of shells and subshells, dual nature of matter and light, de Broglie’s

relationship, Heisenberg uncertainty principle, concept of orbitals, quantum numbers, shapes

of s, p, and d orbitals, rules for filling electrons in orbitals - Aufbau principle, Pauli exclusion

principle and Hund’s rule, electronic configuration of atoms, stability of half filled and

completely filled orbitals.

 

Unit III: Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Properties

 

Significance of classification, brief history of the development of periodic table, modern periodic

law and the present form of periodic table, periodic trends in properties of elements-atomic

radii, ionic radii. Ionization enthalpy, electron gain enthalpy, electro negativity, valence

 

Unit IV: Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure

 

Valence electrons, ionic bond, covalent bond: bond parameters. Lewis structure, polar

character of covalent bond, covalent character of ionic bond, valence bond theory,

resonance, geometry of covalent molecules, VSEPR theory, concept of hybridization,

involving s, p and d orbitals and shapes of some simple molecules, molecular orbital;

theory of homo nuclear diatomic molecules (qualitative idea only), hydrogen bond.

 

Unit V: States of Matter: Gases and Liquids

 

Three states of matter. Intermolecular interactions, type of bonding, melting and boiling

points. Role of gas laws in elucidating the concept of the molecule, Boyle’s law. Charles

law, Gay Lussac’s law, Avogadro’s law. Ideal behaviour, empirical derivation of gas

equation, Avogadro’s number. Ideal gas equation. Derivation from idealbehaviour,liquefaction of gases, critical temperature.Liquid State - Vapour pressure,viscosity and surface tension (qualitative idea only, no mathematical derivations).

 

Unit VI: Thermodynamics

 

Concepts Of System, types of systems, surroundings. Work, heat, energy, extensive and

intensive properties, state functions.

 

First law of thermodynamics - internal energy and enthalpy, heat capacity and specific

heat, measurement of ÄU and ÄH, Hess’s law of constant heat summation, enthalpy of:

bond dissociation, combustion, formation, atomization, sublimation. Phase transformation,

ionization, and solution.

 

Introduction of entropy as a state function, Gibbs energy change for spontaneous and

non-spontaneous processes, criteria for equilibrium.

Second law of thermodynamics (brief introduction)

 

Unit VII: Equilibrium

 

Equilibrium in physical and chemical processes, dynamic nature of equilibrium, law of

mass action, equilibrium constant, factors affecting equilibrium - Le Chatelier’s principle;

ionic equilibrium - ionization of acids and bases, strong and weak electrolytes, degree of

ionization, concept of pH. Hydrolysis of salts (elementary idea). Buffer solutions, solubility

product, common ion effect (with illustrative examples).

 

Unit VIII: Redox Reactions

 

Concept of oxidation and reduction, redox reactions, oxidation number, balancing redox

reactions, in terms of loss and gain of electrons and change in oxidation number, applications

of redox reactions.

 

Unit IX : Hydrogen

 

Position of hydrogen in periodic table, occurrence, isotopes, preparation, properties and

uses of hydrogen; hydrides - ionic, covalent and interstitial; physical and chemical properties

of water, heavy water; hydrogen peroxide-preparation, properties and structure; hydrogen

as a fuel.

 

Unit X: s-Block Elements (Alkali and Alkaline earth metals)

 

Group 1 and Group 2 elements:

 

General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, anomalous properties of the

first element of each group, diagonal relationship, trends in the variation of properties

(such as ionization enthalpy, atomic and ionic radii), trends in chemical reactivity with

oxygen, water, hydrogen and halogens; uses.

 

Preparation and properties of some important compounds:

 

Sodium carbonate, sodium chloride, sodium hydroxide and sodium hydrogen carbonate,

biological importance of sodium and potassium.

 

Calcium oxide and Calcium carbonate and industrial use of lime and limestone, biological

importance of Magnesium and Calcium.

 

Unit XI: Some p-Block Elements

 

General Introduction to p-Block Elements

 

Group 13 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence. Variation

of properties, oxidation states, trends in chemical reactivity, anomalous properties of

first element of the group; Boron- physical and chemical properties, some important compounds:

borax, boric acids, boron hydrides. Aluminium: uses, reactions with acids and

alkalies.

 

Group 14 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, variation

of properties, oxidation states, trends in chemical reactivity, anomalous behaviour of

first element of the group, Carbon - catenation, allotropic forms, physical and chemical

properties; uses of some important compounds: oxides.

 

Important compounds of silicon and a few uses: silicon tetrachloride, silicones, silicates

and zeolites and their uses.

 

Unit XII: Organic Chemistry - Some Basic Principles and Techniques

 

General introduction, methods of qualitative and quantitative analysis, classification and

IUPAC nomenclature of organic compounds

 

Electronic displacements in a covalent bond: inductive effect, electromeric effect, resonance

and hyper conjugation.

 

Homolytic and heterolytic fission of a covalent bond: free radicals, carbocations, carbanions;

electrophiles and nucleophiles, types of organic reactions

 

Unit XIII: Hydrocarbons

 

Classification of hydrocarbons

 

Alkanes - Nomenclature, isomerism, conformations (ethane only), physical properties,

chemical reactions including free radical mechanism of halogenation, combustion and pyrolysis.

 

Alkenes - Nomenclature, structure of double bond (ethene) geometrical isomerism, physical

properties, methods of preparation; chemical reactions: addition of hydrogen, halogen,

water, hydrogen halides (Markovnikov’s addition and peroxide effect), ozonolysis, oxidation,

mechanism of electrophilic addition.

 

Alkynes - Nomenclature, structure of triple bond (ethyne), physical properties. Methods

of preparation, chemical reactions: acidic character of alkynes, addition reaction of - hydrogen,

halogens, hydrogen halides and water.

 

Aromatic hydrocarbons: Introduction, IUPAC nomenclature; benzene: resonance aromaticity;

chemical properties: mechanism of electrophilic substitution. – nitration sulphonation,

halogenation, Friedel Craft’s alkylation and acylation: directive influence of functional group

in mono-substituted benzene; carcinogenicity and toxicity.

 

Unit XIV: Environmental Chemistry

 

Environmental pollution - air, water and soil pollution, chemical reactions in atmosphere,

smog, major atmospheric pollutants; acid rain, ozone and its reactions, effects of

depletion of ozone layer, greenhouse effect and global warming - pollution due to industrial

wastes; green chemistry as an alternative tool for reducing pollution, strategy for control

of environmental pollution.

 

Practical:-

 

A. Basic Laboratory Techniques

 

1. Cutting glass tube and glass rod

2. Bending a glass tube

3. Drawing out a glass jet

4. Boring a cork

 

B. Characterization and purification of chemical substances

 

1. Determination of melting point of an organic compound

2. Determination of boiling point of an organic compound

3. Crystallization of impure sample of anyone of the

following: Alum, Copper sulphate, Benzoic acid.

 

C. Experiments based on pH

 

(a) Anyone of the following experiments:

 

Determination of pH of some solutions obtained from fruit juices, varied concen

trations of acids. ,bases and salts using pH paper or universal indicator.

 

Comparing the pH of solutions of strong and weak acid of same concentration.

 

Study the pH change in the titration of a strong base using universal indicator.

 

b) Study of pH change by common-ion effect in case of weak acids and weak bases.

 

D. Chemical equilibrium

 

One of the following experiments:

 

(a) Study the shift in equilibrium between ferric ions and thiocyanate ions by

increasing/decreasing the concentration of either ions.

 

(b) Study the shift in equilibrium between [Co(H2O)6]2+ and chloride ions

by changing the concentration of either of the ions.

 

E. Quantitative estimation

 

Using a chemical balance

Preparation of standard solution of oxalic acid.

Determination of strength of a given solution of sodium hydroxide by titrating it

against standard solution of oxalic acid.

Preparation of standard solution of sodium carbonate.

Determination of strength of a given solution of hydrochloric acid by titrating it

against standard sodium carbonate solution.

 

F. Qualitative analysis

 

Determination of one anion and one cation in a given salt

Cations- Pb2+, Cu2+, As3+, A13+, Fe3 + ,Mn2+, Ni 2+, Zn2+, Co2+ ,Ca2+,

Sr2+, Ba 2 +, Mg 2 +, NH4

+

Anions- CO3

2-, S2-, SO3

2-, SO4

2-, NO2

, NO3

, Cl–, Br–, I– , PO4

3-,

C2O4

2-, CH3COO–

 

(Note: Insoluble salts excluded)

 

G. Detection of Nitrogen, Sulphur, Chlorine, Bromine and Iodine

in an organic compound.

 

 

PROJECT:-

 

Scientific investigations involving laboratory testing and collecting information from

other sources.

 

A Few suggested Projects

 

Checking the bacterial contamination in drinking water by testing sulphide ion.

Study of the methods of purification of water.

Testing the hardness, presence of iron, fluoride, chloride etc. depending upon the

regional variation in drinking water and the study of causes of presences of these

ions above permissible limit (if any).

Investigation of the foaming capacity of different washing soaps and the effect of addition of sodium carbonate on them.

Study of the acidity of different samples of the tea leaves.

Determination of the rate of evaporation of different liquids.

Study of the effect of acids and bases on the tensile strength of fibers.

Analysis of fruit and vegetable juices for their acidity.

 

Note: Any other investigatory project, which involves about 10 period of work, can be

chosen with the approval of the teacher.

 

Prescribed Books -

 

Chemistry-I : NCERT's Book Published under Copyright

Chemistry-II : NCERT's Book Published under Copyright

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