Maharashtra Board Chemistry Syllabus for Class 12


Maharashtra Board Syllabus for Class 12 Chemistry

MAHARASHTRA BOARD
CHEMISTRY
Std. XII (Theory)

Unit 1: Solid State
Classification of solids based on different forces; molecular, ionic, covalent and metallic solids, amorphous and crystalline solids (elementary idea),unit cell in two dimensional and three dimensional lattices, calculation of density of unit cell, packing in solids, voids, number of atoms per unit cell in a cubic unit cell, point defects, electrical and magnetic properties, Band theory of metals, conductors and semiconductors and insulators and n and p type semiconductors.

Unit 2 : Solutions and colligative properties
Types of solutions, expression of concentration of solids in liquids, solubility of gases in liquids, solid solutions, colligative properties –relative lowering of vapor pressure,Raoult’s law elevation of boiling point, depression of freezing point, osmotic pressure, determination of molecular masses using colligative properties, abnormal molecular mass.Van’t Hoff factor and
calculations involving it.

Unit 3 : Chemical Thermodynamics and energetic
Concepts of system, types of systems, surroundings. Work, heat, energy, extensive and intensive properties, state functions. First law of thermodynamics – internal energy and enthalpy, Hess‟ law of constant heat summation, enthalpy of bond dissociation, combustion, formation, atomization, sublimation. Phase transition, ionization, and solution and dilution
Introduction of entropy as a state function, free energy change for spontaneous and non spontaneous processes, and equilibrium constant. Second and third law of thermodynamics

Unit 4: Electrochemistry
Redox reactions, conductance in electrolytic solutions, specific and molar conductivity, variations of conductivity with concentration, Kohlrausch‟s Law, electrolysis and laws of electrolysis (elementary idea), dry cell –electrolytic and Galvanic cells; lead accumulator, EMF of a cell, standard electrode potential, Nernst equation and its application to chemical cells, fuel cells; corrosion. Relation between Gibb’s energy change and emf of a cell.

Unit 5: Chemical Kinetics
Rate of reaction (average and instantaneous), factors affecting rate of reaction; concentration, temperature, catalyst; order and molecularity of a reaction; rate law and specific rate constant, integrated rate equations and half life (only for zero and first order reactions); concept of collision theory (elementary idea, no mathematical treatment).Activation energy, Arrhenius
equation.

Unit 6 : General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements
Principles and methods of extraction – concentration, oxidation, reduction electrolytic method and refining; occurrence and principle of extraction of aluminium, copper, zinc and iron

Unit 7: p-Block Elements

Group 15 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, oxidation states, trends in physical and chemical properties; nitrogen – preparation, properties and uses;compounds of nitrogen; preparation and properties of ammonia and nitric acid, oxides of nitrogen (structure only); Phoshorous-allotropic forms; compounds of phosphorous; preparation and properties of phosphine, halides (PCl3,PCl5) and oxoacids (elementary idea only).

Group 16 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence,trends in physical and chemical properties; dioxygen; preparation, properties and uses;Classification of oxides, simple oxides; Ozone.
Sulphur – allotropic forms; compounds of sulphur; preparation, properties and uses of sulphur dioxide; sulphurc acid; industrial process of manufacture, properties and uses, oxoacids of sulphur (structures only).

Group 17 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties; compounds of halogens; preparation, properties and uses of chlorine and hydrochloric acid, interhalogen compounds, oxoacids of halogens (structure only).

Group 18 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration. Occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties, uses.

Unit 8 : d and f Block Elements
d-Block Elements - General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence and characteristics of transition
metals, general trends in properties of the first row transition metals – metallic character, ionization enthalpy, oxidation states, ionic radii, colour, catalytic property, magnetic properties, interstitial compounds, alloy formation preparation and properties of K2Cr2O7 and KMnO4.
f-Block Elements- Lanthanoids – Electronic configuration, oxidation states, chemical reactivity and lanthanoid
contraction and its consequences. Actinoids – Electronic configuration, oxidation states. Comparison with lanthanoids.

Unit 9: Coordination Compounds
Coordination compounds – Introduction, ligands, coordination number, colour, magnetic properties and shapes, IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclear coordination compounds, bonding; Werner’s theory, VBT,CFT. isomerism, (Structural and stereo) importance of coordination compounds (in qualitative analysis, extraction of metals and biological systems).

Unit 10 : Halogen derivatives of alkanes (and arenes)
Haloalkanes : Nomenclature, nature of C-X bond, physical and chemical properties, mechanism of substitution reactions.Stability of carbocations,R-S and d-l configuration Haloarenes : Nature of C-X bond, substitution reactions (directive influence of halogen for monosubstituted compounds only) stability of carbocations, R-S and d-l configurations. Uses and environmental effects of – dichloromethane, thrichloromethane, tetrachloromethane,
iodoform, freons, DDT.

Unit 11 : Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
Alcohols: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties (of primary alcohols only); identification of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols; mechanism of dehydration, uses of methanol and ethanol.
Phenols: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, acidic nature of phenol, electrophillic substitution reactions, uses of phenols. Ethers : Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, uses.

Unit 12 : Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids
Aldehydes and Ketones : Nomenclature, nature of carbonyl group, methods of preparation. Physical and chemical properties, mechanism of nucleophilic addition, reactivity of alpha hydrogen in aldehydes; uses. Carboxylic Acids: Nomenclature, acidic nature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties; uses.

Unit 13: Organic Compounds Containing Nitrogen
Nitro compounds-General methods of preparation and chemical reactions Amines : Nomenclature, classification, structure, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, uses, identification of primary, secondary and tertiary amines.
Cyanides and Isocyanides: Will be mentioned at relevant places in context. Diazonium salts: Preparation, chemical reactions and importance in synthetic organic chemistry.

Unit 14: Biomolecules
Carbohydrates: Classification (aldoses and ketoses), monosaccahrides d-l configuration (glucose and fructose), oligosaccharides (sucrose, lactose, maltose), polysaccharides (starch, cellulose, glycogen), importance.
Proteins: Elementary idea of -amino acids, peptide, linkage, polypeptides, proteins; structure of amines-primary, secondary, tertiary structure and quaternary structures (qualitative idea only), denaturation of proteins; enzymes. Lipids and Hormones (elementary idea) excluding structure, their classification and functions.
Vitamins: Classification and functions. Nucleic Acids: DNA and RNA

Unit 15: Polymers
Classification - natural and synthetic, methods of polymerization (addition and condensation), copolymerization. Some important polymers; natural and synthetic like polythene, nylon, polyesters, bakelite, and rubber.Biodegradable and non biodegradable polymers.

Unit 16: Chemistry in Everyday life :

1. Chemicals in medicines: analgesics, tranquilizers, antiseptics, disinfectants, antimicrobials, antifertility drugs, antibiotics, antacids, antihistamines (elementary idea of antioxidants)

2. Chemicals in food: Preservatives, artificial sweetening agents.

3. Cleansing agents: Soaps and detergents, cleansing action. 

Chemistry Practical Syllabus
Std. XII

A. Chemical Kinetics (Any one of the following) :
(a) Effect of concentration and temperature on the rate of reaction between sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid.
(b) Study of reaction rate of any one of the following:
(i) Reaction of iodide ion with hydrogen peroxide at room temperature using different concentration of iodide ions.
(ii) Reaction between potassium iodate, KIO3 and sodium sulphite (Na2SO3) using starch
solution as indicator (clock reaction).
(c) Acid hydrolysis of ethyl acetate.

B. Thermochemistry
Any one of the following experiments:
i] Enthalpy of dissolution of copper sulphate or potassium nitrate.
ii] Enthalpy of neutralization of strong acid (HCI) and strong base (NaOH).
iii] Determination of enthalpy change during interaction (hydrogen bond formation) between
acetone and chloroform.
iv] Heat of displacement of Cu from CuSO4 by Zn.

C. Electrochemistry
Variation of cell potential in Zn|Zn2+||Cu2+|Cu with change in concentration of electrolytes
(CuSO4 or ZnSO4) at room temperature (demonstration).

D. Chromatography (demonstration)
(i) Separation of pigments from extracts of leaves and flowers by paper chromatography and
determination of Rf values.
(ii) Separation of constituents present in an inorganic mixture containing two cations only
(constituents having large difference in Rf values to be provided).

E. Preparation of Inorganic Compounds
(i) Preparation of double salt of ferrous ammonium sulphate or potash alum.
(ii) Preparation of potassium ferric oxalate.

F. Preparation of Organic Compounds
(i) p-Nitrocetanilide
(ii) Aniline yellow or 2- Napthol aniline dye.
(iii) Iodoform
(iv) Phthalic or succinic anhydride.
(v) Di-benzal acetone

G. Tests for the functional groups present in organic compounds
Unsaturation, alcoholic, phenolic, aldehydic, ketonic, carboxylic and amino (primary) groups.

H. Characteristic tests of arbohydrates, fats and proteins in pure samples and their
detection in given food stuffs.

I. Determinaiton of concentration/molarity of KMnO4 solution by titrating it against a
standard solution of:
(i) Oxalic acid
(ii) Ferrous ammonium sulphate
(Students will be required to prepare standard solutions by weighing themselves).

J. Qualitative analysis

1) Determination of two cations from a given mixture of salts.

2) Determination of two anions from a given mixture of salts.
Cations – Pb2+, Cu2+, As3+, Al3+, Fe3+, Mn2+, Zn2+, Co2+, Ni2+, Ca2+, Sr2+, Ba2+, Mg2+,
NH4+,
135
Anions – CO32-,
SO32-,
SO42-,
No2-
NO3-, Cl-, Br-, I-, PO43-
C2O42-
CH3COO-
(Note : Insoluble salts excluded.)

PROJECT
Scientific investigations involving laboratory testing and collecting information
From other sources.
A few suggested Projects:

1 Study of presence of oxalate ions in guava fruit at different stages of ripening.

2 Study of quantity of casein present in different samples of milk.

3 Preparation of soybean milk and its comparison with the natural milk with respect to
curd formation, effect of temperature, etc.

4 Study of the effect of potassium bisulphate as food preservative under various conditions
(temperature, concentration, time etc).

5 Study of digestion of starch by salivary amylase and, effect of pH and temperature on it.

6 Comparative study of the rate of fermentation of following materials: wheat
flour, gram flour, potato juice, carrot juice, etc.

7 Extraction of essential oils present in Saunf (aniseed), Ajwain (carum), Illaichi
(cardamom).

8 Study of common food adulterants in fat, butter, sugar, turmeric powder, chilli powder and pepper.
Note : Any investigatory project, can be chosen with the approval of the teacher.

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