Maharashtra Board Chemistry Syllabus for Class 11

Maharashtra Board Syllabus for Class 11 Chemistry

Std. XI (Theory)

Unit 1: Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry
General Introduction: Importance and scope of chemistry. Historical approach to particulate nature of matter, laws of chemical combination, Dalton‟s atomic theory : concept of elements, atoms and molecules. Atomic and molecular masses mole concept and molar mass : Avogadro‟s law and Avogadro number, percentage composition, empirical and molecular formula, chemical reactions, stoichiometry and calculations based on stoichimetry.

Unit 2 : States of Matter : Gases and Liquids
Three states of matter. Intermolecular interactions, type of bonding. Role of gas laws in elucidating the concept of the molecule, Boyle‟s law, Charles law, Gay Lussac‟s law. Ideal behaviour, empirical derivation of gas equation. Ideal gas equation. Deviation from ideal behaviour, liquefaction of gases. Critical temperature. Kinetic energy and molecular speeds
(elementary idea) Liquid State – Vapour pressure, viscosity and surface tension (qualitative idea only, no mathematical derivations).

Unit 3 : Structure of Atom
Discovery of electron, proton and neutron; atomic number, isotopes and isobars. Rutherford‟s model and its limitations, Bohr‟s model and its limitations, concept of shells and subshells, dual nature of matter and light, de Broglie‟s relationship, Heisenberg‟s uncertainty principle, concept of orbitals, quantum numbers, shapes of s, p and d orbitals, rules for filling electrons in orbitals – Aufbau principle, Pauli‟s exclusion principle and Hund‟s rule, electronic configuration of atoms,
stability of half filled and completely filled orbitals.

Unit 4 : Periodic Table
Significance of classification, brief history of the development of periodic table, modern periodic law and present form of periodic table, periodic trends in properties of elements atomic radii, ionic radii. Inert gas radii nomenclature of elements with atomic number greater than 100.Enthalpy: Explanation and definition of term. Ionization enthalpy, electron gain enthalpy, electronegativity, valence.

Unit 5: Redox Reactions
Concept of oxidation and reduction, redox reactions, oxidation number, Balancing redox reactions, in terms of loss and gain of electrons and change in oxidation number.

Unit 6: Chemical Equilibrium
Equilibrium in physical and chemical processes, dynamic nature of equilibrium, law of mass action, equilibrium constant, factors affecting equilibrium, Le Chatelier‟s principle. Ionic equilibrium: Ionization of acids and bases, strong and weak electrolytes, degree of ionization, ionization of polybasic acids, acid strength, concept of pH. Hydrolysis of salts
(elementary idea). Buffer solutions, solubility product common ion effect (with illustrative examples.) Handerson equation.

Unit 7 : Surface Chemistry
Adsorption – physisorption and chemisorption; factors affecting adsorption of gases on solids; catalysis : homogenous and heterogeneous, activity and selectivity: enzyme catalysis; colloidal state : distinction between true solutions, colloids and suspensions; Lyophilic, Lyophobic, multimolecular and macromolecular colloids; properties of colloids; Tyndall effect, Brownian movement, electrophoresis, coagulation; emulsion – types of emulsions. Elementary idea of

Unit 8 : Nature of Chemical Bond
Valence electrons, ionic bond, Born Haber cycle : covalent bond parameters. Lewis structure, polar character of covalent bond, covalent character of ionic bond, valence bond theory, resonance, geometry of covalent molecules, VSEPR theory, concept of hybridization involving s, p and d orbitals and shapes of some simple molecules, molecular orbital theory of homonuclear diatomic molecules (qualitative idea only), hydrogen bond.

Unit 9 : Hydrogen
Position of hydrogen in periodic table, occurrence, isotopes, preparation, properties and uses of hydrogen; hydrides-ionic, covalent and interstitial; physical and chemical properties of water, heavy water. Hydrogen peroxide- preparation, properties and structure; hydrogen as a fuel. Uses of hydrogen peroxide

Unit 10: s-Block Elements (Alkali and Alkaline earth metals)

Group 1 and Group 2 elements:
General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, anomalous properties of the first element of each group, diagonal relationship, trends in the variation of properties (such as ionization enthalpy, atomic and ionic radii), trends in chemical reactivity with oxygen, water, hydrogen and halogens; uses. Preparation and properties of some important compounds: Sodium carbonate, sodium hydroxide and sodium hydrogen carbonate, biological importance of sodium
and potassium. Calcium oxide and calcium carbonate (CaO) (CaCO3) and industrial uses of lime and limestone, biological importance of Magnesium and Calcium.

Unit 11 : p-Block Elements
Group Introduction to p-Block Elements

Group 13 elements : General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence. Variation of properties, oxidation states, trends in chemical reactivity, anomalous properties of first element of the group. Boron-physical and chemical properties, some important compounds: borax, boric acids, boron hydrides. Aluminium; uses, reactions with acids and alkalies.

Group 14 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, variation of properties, oxidation states, trends in chemical reactivity, anomalous behavior of first element. Carbon – catenation, allotropic forms, physical and chemical properties; uses of some important Compounds; oxides. Important compounds of silicon and their uses: silicon tetrachloride, silicones, silicates and zeolites and structure of silicates

Unit 12: Basic Principles and Techniques in Organic Chemistry

General introduction, methods of qualitative and quantitative analysis, Classification and IUPAC nomenclature of organic compounds. Melting point and boiling point. Electronic displacements

Unit 13 : Alkanes

Classification of hydrocarbons – Nomenclature, isomerism, conformations (ethane only), physical properties, chemical reactions including free radical mechanism of halogenation, combustion and pyrolysis.

Unit 14 : Alkenes

Nomenclature, structure of double bond (ethane), geometrical isomerism, physical properties, methods of preparation. Chemical reactions; addition of hydrogen, halogen, water, hydrogen halides (Markovnikoff‟s addition and peroxide effect) ozonolysis, oxidation, mechanism of electrophilic addition.

Unit 15: Alkynes

Nomenclature, structure of triple bond (ethylene), physical properties. Methods of preparation, chemical reactions: acidic character of alkynes, addition reaction of – hydrogen, halogens, hydrogen halides, water.

Unit 16 : Aromatic compounds

Introduction, IUPAC nomenclature; benzene; resonance aromaticity; chemical properties; mechanism of electrophilic substitution. – nitration, sulphonaiton, halogenation, Friedel Craft‟ alkylation and acylation; Carcinogenicity and toxicity.

UNIT-17: Environmental chemistry

Environmental pollution- air, water and soil pollution, chemical reactions in atmosphere, smog, major atmospheric pollutants, acid rain, ozone and its reactions, effects of depletion of ozone layer, green house effect and global warming. Pollution due to industrial wastes, green chemistry as an alternative tool for reducing pollution, strategy for control of
environmental pollution.

Chemistry Practical Syllabus

A. Basic Laboratory Techniques
1. Cutting glass tube and glass rod
2. Bending glass tube
3. Drawing out a glass jet
4. Study of burner
5. Operating pinch cork

B. Characterization and purification of chemical substances

1. Determination of melting point of an organic compound. (p-toludine, naphthalene, Oxalic acid, β-naphthol, resorcinol, benzoic acid.)

2. Determination of boiling point of an organic compound. (acetone, methyl acetate, acetic acid, xylene (o,m,p), water)

3. Crystallization of impure sample of anyone of the following compounds. Alum, copper sulphate, benzoic acid.

C. Surface Chemistry

(a) Preparation of one lyophilic and one lyophobic sol: Lyophilic sol-starch and gum. Lyophobic sol–aluminium hydroxide, ferric hydroxide, arseneous sulphide.

(b) Study of the role of emulsifying agents in stabilizing the emulsion of oil.

D. Chemical equilibrium
Any one of the following experiments:

(a) Study the shift in equilibrium between ferric ions and thiocyanate ions by changing the concentration of either ion. (b) Study the shift in equilibrium between [Co(H2O)6]2+ and chloride ions by changing the concentration of either of the ions.

E. Experiments related to pH change

(a) Any one of the following experiments:
Determination of pH of some solutions obtained from fruit juices, varied concentrations of acids, bases and salts using pH paper or universal indicator. Comparing the pH solutions of strong and weak acid of same concentration. Study the pH change in the titration of a strong base using universal indicator.

(b) Study of pH change by common ion effect in case of weak acids and bases.

F. Quantitative estimation
Using a chemical balance. Preparation of standard solution of oxalic acid. Determination of strength of a given solution of sodium hydroxide by titrating it against standard solution of oxalic acid. Preparation of standard solution of sodium carbonate. Determination of strength of a given solution of hydrochloric acid by titrating It against standard sodium carbonate solution.

G. Qualitative analysis
Determination of one cation and one anion in a given salt:
Cations – Pb2+, Cu2+, Al3+, Fe3+, Mn2+, Ni2+
, Zn2+, Co2+, Ca2+, Sr2+, Ba2+, Mg2+, NH4+
Anions – CO32-
Cl-, Br-, I-, PO43-
(Note: Insoluble salts excluded)

H. Detection of nitrogen, sulphur, chlorine bromine and iodine in an organic compound.

Scientific investigations involving laboratory testing and collecting information from other
A few suggested Projects

1 Checking the bacterial contamination in drinking water by testing sulphide ion.

2 Study of the methods of purification of water.

3 Testing the hardness, presence of iron, fluoride, chloride etc. depending upon the regional variation in drinking water and the study of causes of presence of these ions above
permissible limit (if any).

4 Investigation of the foaming capacity of different washing soaps and the effect of addition of sodium carbonate on them.

5 Study of the acidity of different samples of the tea leaves.

6 Determination of the rate of evaporation of different liquids.

7 Study of the effect of acids and bases on the tensile strength of fibers.

8 Analysis of fruit and vegetable juices for their acidity.
Note: Any other investigatory project can be chosen with the approval of the teacher.

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