Maharashtra Board Botany Syllabus for Class 12
Maharashtra Board Syllabus for Class 12 Botany
Section I – BOTANY
Unit 1: Genetics and Evolution
Chapter 1 - Genetic Basis of Inheritance:
Mendelian inheritance. Deviations from Mendelian ratio (gene interaction- incomplete dominance,
co-dominance, multiple alleles and Inheritance of blood groups), Pleiotropy, Elementary idea of
Chapter 2 - Gene: its nature, expression and regulation:
Modern concept of gene in brief-cistron, muton and recon. DNA as genetic material, structure of
DNA as given by Watson and Cricks model, DNA Packaging, semi conservative replication of
RNA: General structure types and functions.
Protein Synthesis; central dogma, Transcription; Translation-Genetic Code,
Gene Expression and Gene Regulation (The Lac operon as a typical model of gene regulation).
Unit 2: Biotechnology and its application
Chapter 3 - Biotechnology: Process and Application
Genetic engineering (Recombinant DNA technology):
Transposons, Plasmids, Bacteriophages; Producing Restriction Fragments,
Preparing and cloning a DNA Library, Gene Amplification (PCR).
Application of Biotechnology in Agriculture – BT crops
Biosafety Issues (Biopiracy and patents)
Unit 3: Biology and Human Welfare
Chapter 4 - Enhancement in Food Production:
Plant Breeding -
Tissue Culture: Concept of Cellular Totipotency,
Requirements of Tissue Culture (in brief), Callus Culture, Suspension Culture.
Single Cell Protein. Biofortification
Chapter 5 - Microbes in Human Welfare:
Microbes in Household food processing
Microbes in Industrial Production.
Microbes in Sewage Treatment.
Microbes in Biogas (energy) Production.
Microbes as Biocontrol Agents.
Microbes as Biofertilizers.
Unit 4: Plant Physiology
Chapter 6 - Photosynthesis:
Site of Photosynthesis
Photosynthetic Pigments and their role.
Light-Dependent Reactions (Cyclic and non-cyclic photophosphorylation)
Light-Independent Reactions (C3 and C4 Pathways)
Chemiosmotic hypothesis, Photorespiration, Factors affecting Photosynthesis. Law of limiting
Chapter 7 - Respiration:
ATP as currency of Energy
Mechanism of Aerobic (Glycolysis, TCA Cycle and Electron Transport System) and Anaerobic
Exchange of gases
Amphibolic pathway. Respiratory quotient of Nutrients.
Significance of Respiration.
Unit 5: Reproduction in Organisms
Chapter 8 - Reproduction in Plants:
Modes of Reproduction (Asexual and Sexual).
Asexual reproduction; uniparental modes-vegetative propagation, micropropagation
Sexual Reproduction: structure of flower Development of male gametophyte,
Structure of anatropous ovule.
Development of female Gametophyte.
Pollination: Types and Agencies.
Outbreeding devices; pollen-pistil interaction.
Double Fertilization: Process and Significance.
Post-fertilization changes (development of endosperm and embryo, development of seed and
formation of fruit)
Special modes-apomixis, parthenocarpy, polyembryony. Significance of seed and fruit
Unit 6: Ecology and Environment
Chapter 9: Organisms and Environment -I
Habitat and Niche
Ecosystems: Patterns, components, productivity and decomposition, energy flow; pyramids of
number, biomass, energy; nutrient cycling (carbon and phosphorous).
Ecological succession, Ecological services-carbon fixation, pollination, oxygen release.
Environmental issues: agrochemicals and their effects, solid waste management, Green house
effect and global warming, ozone depletion, deforestation, case studies (any two).
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