Maharashtra Board Botany Syllabus for Class 12


Maharashtra Board Syllabus for Class 12 Botany

Std. - XII Biology
(Upgraded syllabus)
Section I – BOTANY

Unit 1: Genetics and Evolution

Chapter 1 - Genetic Basis of Inheritance:
Mendelian inheritance. Deviations from Mendelian ratio (gene interaction- incomplete dominance,
co-dominance, multiple alleles and Inheritance of blood groups), Pleiotropy, Elementary idea of
polygenic inheritance.

Chapter 2 - Gene: its nature, expression and regulation:
Modern concept of gene in brief-cistron, muton and recon. DNA as genetic material, structure of
DNA as given by Watson and Cricks model, DNA Packaging, semi conservative replication of
eukaryotic DNA.
RNA: General structure types and functions.
Protein Synthesis; central dogma, Transcription; Translation-Genetic Code,
Gene Expression and Gene Regulation (The Lac operon as a typical model of gene regulation).

Unit 2: Biotechnology and its application
Chapter 3 - Biotechnology: Process and Application
Genetic engineering (Recombinant DNA technology):
Transposons, Plasmids, Bacteriophages; Producing Restriction Fragments,
Preparing and cloning a DNA Library, Gene Amplification (PCR).
Application of Biotechnology in Agriculture – BT crops
Biosafety Issues (Biopiracy and patents)

Unit 3: Biology and Human Welfare

Chapter 4 - Enhancement in Food Production:
Plant Breeding -
Tissue Culture: Concept of Cellular Totipotency,
Requirements of Tissue Culture (in brief), Callus Culture, Suspension Culture.
Single Cell Protein. Biofortification
Chapter 5 - Microbes in Human Welfare:
Microbes in Household food processing
Microbes in Industrial Production.
Microbes in Sewage Treatment.
Microbes in Biogas (energy) Production.
Microbes as Biocontrol Agents.
Microbes as Biofertilizers.

Unit 4: Plant Physiology

Chapter 6 - Photosynthesis:
Autotrophic nutrition
Site of Photosynthesis
Photosynthetic Pigments and their role.
Light-Dependent Reactions (Cyclic and non-cyclic photophosphorylation)
Light-Independent Reactions (C3 and C4 Pathways)
Chemiosmotic hypothesis, Photorespiration, Factors affecting Photosynthesis. Law of limiting
factors.
Chapter 7 - Respiration:
ATP as currency of Energy
Mechanism of Aerobic (Glycolysis, TCA Cycle and Electron Transport System) and Anaerobic
Respiration. Fermentation
Exchange of gases
Amphibolic pathway. Respiratory quotient of Nutrients.
Significance of Respiration.

Unit 5: Reproduction in Organisms

Chapter 8 - Reproduction in Plants:
Modes of Reproduction (Asexual and Sexual).
Asexual reproduction; uniparental modes-vegetative propagation, micropropagation
Sexual Reproduction: structure of flower Development of male gametophyte,
Structure of anatropous ovule.
Development of female Gametophyte.
Pollination: Types and Agencies.
Outbreeding devices; pollen-pistil interaction.
Double Fertilization: Process and Significance.
Post-fertilization changes (development of endosperm and embryo, development of seed and
formation of fruit)
Special modes-apomixis, parthenocarpy, polyembryony. Significance of seed and fruit
formation.

Unit 6: Ecology and Environment
:
Chapter 9: Organisms and Environment -I
Habitat and Niche
Ecosystems: Patterns, components, productivity and decomposition, energy flow; pyramids of
number, biomass, energy; nutrient cycling (carbon and phosphorous).
Ecological succession, Ecological services-carbon fixation, pollination, oxygen release.
Environmental issues: agrochemicals and their effects, solid waste management, Green house
effect  and global warming, ozone depletion, deforestation, case studies (any two).

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