Maharashtra Board Biology Syllabus for Class 12

Maharashtra Board Syllabus for Class 12 Biology

Maharashtra Board
Std. - XII Biology

Section I – BOTANY
Unit 1: Genetics and Evolution
Chapter 1 - Genetic Basis of Inheritance:
Mendelian inheritance. Deviations from Mendelian ratio (gene interaction- incomplete dominance,
co-dominance, multiple alleles and Inheritance of blood groups), Pleiotropy, Elementary idea of
polygenic inheritance.
Chapter 2 - Gene: its nature, expression and regulation:
Modern concept of gene in brief-cistron, muton and recon. DNA as genetic material, structure of
DNA as given by Watson and Cricks model, DNA Packaging, semi conservative replication of
eukaryotic DNA.
RNA: General structure types and functions.
Protein Synthesis; central dogma, Transcription; Translation-Genetic Code,
Gene Expression and Gene Regulation (The Lac operon as a typical model of gene regulation).
Unit 2: Biotechnology and its application
Chapter 3 - Biotechnology: Process and Application
Genetic engineering (Recombinant DNA technology):
Transposons, Plasmids, Bacteriophages; Producing Restriction Fragments,
Preparing and cloning a DNA Library, Gene Amplification (PCR).
Application of Biotechnology in Agriculture – BT crops
Biosafety Issues (Biopiracy and patents)
Unit 3: Biology and Human Welfare
Chapter 4 - Enhancement in Food Production:
Plant Breeding -
Tissue Culture: Concept of Cellular Totipotency,

Requirements of Tissue Culture (in brief), Callus Culture, Suspension Culture.
Single Cell Protein. Biofortification
Chapter 5 - Microbes in Human Welfare:
Microbes in Household food processing
Microbes in Industrial Production.
Microbes in Sewage Treatment.
Microbes in Biogas (energy) Production.
Microbes as Biocontrol Agents.
Microbes as Biofertilizers.
Unit 4: Plant Physiology
Chapter 6 - Photosynthesis:
Autotrophic nutrition
Site of Photosynthesis
Photosynthetic Pigments and their role.
Light-Dependent Reactions (Cyclic and non-cyclic photophosphorylation)
Light-Independent Reactions (C3 and C4 Pathways)
Chemiosmotic hypothesis, Photorespiration, Factors affecting Photosynthesis. Law of limiting
Chapter 7 - Respiration:
ATP as currency of Energy
Mechanism of Aerobic (Glycolysis, TCA Cycle and Electron Transport System) and Anaerobic
Respiration. Fermentation
Exchange of gases
Amphibolic pathway. Respiratory quotient of Nutrients.
Significance of Respiration.
Unit 5: Reproduction in Organisms
Chapter 8 - Reproduction in Plants:
Modes of Reproduction (Asexual and Sexual).
Asexual reproduction; uniparental modes-vegetative propagation, micropropagation
Sexual Reproduction: structure of flower Development of male gametophyte,
Structure of anatropous ovule.
Development of female Gametophyte.
Pollination: Types and Agencies.
Outbreeding devices; pollen-pistil interaction.
Double Fertilization: Process and Significance.
Post-fertilization changes (development of endosperm and embryo, development of seed and
formation of fruit)
Special modes-apomixis, parthenocarpy, polyembryony. Significance of seed and fruit
Unit 6: Ecology and Environment:
Chapter 9: Organisms and Environment -I
Habitat and Niche
Ecosystems: Patterns, components, productivity and decomposition, energy flow; pyramids of
number, biomass, energy; nutrient cycling (carbon and phosphorous).
Ecological succession, Ecological services-carbon fixation, pollination, oxygen release.
Environmental issues: agrochemicals and their effects, solid waste management, Green house
effect and global warming, ozone depletion, deforestation, case studies (any two).

Std. - XII Biology
Section II - ZOOLOGY

Unit 1: Genetics and Evolution
Chapter 10 - Origin and the Evolution of Life:
Origin of Life: Early Earth, Spontaneous, assembly of organic compounds,
Evolution: Darwin‟s contribution, Modern Synthetic Theory of evolution, Biological Evidences,
Mechanism of evolution; Gene flow and genetic drift;Hardy-Weinberg principle; Adaptive
radiation. Origin and Evolution of Human being.
Chapter 11 - Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance:
The Chromosomal Theory.
Linkage and Crossing Over.
Sex-linked Inheritance (Haemophilia and colour blindness).
Sex Determination in Human being, birds, honey bee.Mendelian disorders in humans-
Thalassemia. Chromosomal disorders in human: Down’s syndrome, Turner’s syndrome and
Klinfelter’s syndrome.
Unit 2: Biotechnology and its application
Chapter 12- Genetic Engineering and Genomics:
DNA Finger Printing.
Genomics and Human Genome Project.
Biotechnological Applications in Health:
Human insulin and vaccine production, Gene Therapy. Transgenic animals.
Unit 3: Biology and Human Welfare
Chapter 13- Human Health and Diseases:
Concepts of Immunology: Immunity Types, Vaccines,
Structure of Antibody, Antigen-Antibody
Complex, Antigens on blood cells.
Pathogens and Parasites (Amoebiasis, Malaria, Filariasis, Ascariasis, Typhoid, Pneumonia, Common
cold and ring worm).
Adolescence, drug and alcohol abuse.
Cancer and AIDS.
Chapter 14- Animal Husbandry:
Management of Farms and Farm Animals.
Animal Breeding.
Lac culture
Unit 4: Human Physiology
Chapter 15- Circulation:
Blood composition and coagulation, Blood groups
Structure and pumping action of Heart.
Blood Vessels.
Pulmonary and Systemic Circulation.
Heart beat and Pulse. Rhythmicity of Heart beat. Cardiac output, Regulation of cardiac activity.
Blood related disorders: Hypertension, coronary artery disease, angina pectoris, and heart failure.
ECG, Lymphatic System (Brief idea): Composition of lymph and its functions.
Chapter 16- Excretion and osmoregulation:
Modes of excretion-Ammonotelism, ureotelism, uricotelism.
Excretory System
Composition and formation of urine.
Role of Kidney in Osmoregulation. Regulation of kidney function: renin-angiotensin, atrial
natriuretic factor, ADH and Diabetes inspidus, role of other organs in excretion.
Disorders; Kidney failure, Dialysis, Kidney stone (renal calculi). Transplantation. Uraemia,
Chapter 17- Control and Co-ordination:
Nervous System:
Structure and functions of brain and
Spinal cord, brief idea about PNS and ANS.
Transmission of nerve impulse.
Reflex action.
Sensory receptors (eye and ear), Sensory perception, general idea of other sense organs
Endocrine System:
Endocrine glands.
Hormones and their functions. Mechanism of hormone action
Hormones as messengers and regulators.
Hormonal imbalance and diseases: Common disorders (Dwarfism, Acromegaly, cretinism, goiter,
exopthalmic goiter, Diabetes mellitus, Addison’s disease)
Unit 5: Reproduction in Organisms
Chapter 18- Human Reproduction:
Reproductive system in male and female.
Histology of testis and ovary.
Reproductive cycle.
Production of gametes, fertilization, implantation.
Embryo development up to three germinal layers.
Pregnancy, placenta, parturition and lactation (Elementary idea).
Reproductive health-birth control,
Contraception and sexually transmitted diseases.MTP, Amniocentesis; Infertility and assisted
reproductive technologies- IVF, ZIFT, GIFT (elementary idea for general awareness).
Unit 6: Ecology and Environment
Chapter 19-Organisms and Environment-II
Population and ecological adaptations: population interactions-mutualism, competition,
predation, parasitism, population attributes- growth, birth rate and death rate, age
Biodiversity and its conservation- Biodiversity- concept, patterns, importance, loss, Threats to
and need for biodiversity conservation , Hotspots, endangered organisms,extinction,red data
book , biosphere reserves, national parks and sanctuaries. Environmental issues: air pollution
and its control, water pollution and its control and radioactive waste management. (Case
studies any two)

Std. XII

Biology Practicals Syllabus
1. Dissect the given flower and display different whorls. Dissect anther and ovary to show number of
2. Study pollen germination on a slide.
3. Collect and study soil from at least two different sites and study them for texture, moisture content,
pH and water holding capacity of soil. Correlate with the kinds of plants found in them.
4. Study of plant population density and frequency by quadrate method.
5. Prepare a temporary mount of onion root tip to study mitosis.
6. Separation of plant pigments by paper chromatography
7 To study the rate of respiration in flower buds/leaf tissue and germinating seeds.
8. Study the presence of suspended particulate matter in air at the two widely different Sites.
9. Collect water from two different water bodies around you and study them for pH, clarity and
presence of any living organisms..
10. To test the presence of urea and sugar in urine.
11To test the presence of albumin and bile salts in urine.
Study/observation of the following (Spotting):
1 Study of flowers adapted to pollination by different agencies (wind, insect)
2 Study of pollen germination on stigma through a permanent slide.
3 To Study Mendelian inheritance using seeds of different colour/size of any plant.
4 Exercise on controlled pollination - Emasculation, tagging and bagging
5 Study meiosis in onion bud cell or grass hopper testis through permanent slide.
6 Study plants found in xerophytic and aquatic conditions with respect to their morphological
adaptations.(Two plants each)
7 Study and identify stages of gamete development, T.S. of testis and T.S. ovary through permanent
slides (from any mammal).
8. Study of V.S. of blastula through permanent slide.
9 To study prepared pedigree charts of genetic traits such as rolling of tongue, Blood groups,
widow‟s peak, colour blindness.
10 To identify common disease causing organisms like Plasmodium, Entamoeba ,Ascaris and
ring worm through permanent slides or specimens. Comment on symptoms of diseases that
they cause.
11 Study of animals found in xeric (desert) and aquatic conditions with respect to their
morphological adaptations. (Two animals each)

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