Maharashtra Board Biology Syllabus for Class 11


Maharashtra Board Syllabus for Class 11 Biology

Std. – XI: Biology
Maharashtra Board
( syllabus)
Section I - Botany
.
Unit 1 Diversity in Living World:

Chapter 1- Diversity in organisms
1. Diversity in living organisms-Brief idea.
2. Systematic and binomial system of nomenclature - meaning of the terms taxonomy, systematics,
classification and nomenclature, Need of classification. Three domains of life, Concept of species.
Taxonomic hierarchy with examples. Binomial nomenclature explanation, significance and
examples.
3. Classification of living organisms (five Kingdom classification) – Major groups and principles of
classification for each Kingdom with examples.
4. Lichens - Meaning, characters, examples and importance.
5. Viruses and viroids - Definitions, characters, types with examples, Economic importance and list
of viral diseases.

Chapter 2 - Kingdom Plantae
1. Salient features of major plant groups - Algae, Bryophyta, Pteridophyta, Gymnosperms and
Angiosperms (Dicotyledons and Monocotyledons). Three to five salient features and two examples
of each category.
2. Botanical gardens and herbaria - Meaning, importance and list of gardens and herbaria in India.
Unit 2 Structure and function of cell

Chapter 3 - Biochemistry of cell:
1. Basic chemical constituents of living bodies.
2. Structure and function of carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and nucleic acids in brief.
3. Enzymes - Definition, Types, general properties, Enzyme action and factors affecting enzyme
activity in brief.

Chapter 4 Cell Division
1. Cell cycle
2. Mitosis
3. Meiosis

Unit 3 Structural organization in plants:
Chapter 5 - Morphology of Plants
1. Morphology, anatomy and functions of different parts - Roots, stem, leaf, inflorescence,
flower, fruit and seed. (To be dealt along with the relevant practicals of the practical
syllabus)
2. Plant tissues.

Unit 4 Plant Physiology:
Chapter 6 - Plant Water Relation and Mineral Nutrition
1. Movement of water, food, nutrients and gases.- Absorption of water and minerals,Apoplast
and Symplast Pathways. Active and passive absorption in brief.
2. Guttation
Ascent of sap, root pressure concept and cohesion - tension theory.
Translocation of sugars through phloem brief account.
Transpiration – structure of stomata, mechanism of opening and closing of stomata, Role of K+
ions
3. Role of water and minerals - macronutrients and micronutrients and their role. Mineral deficiency
symptoms, Mineral toxicity, Elementary idea of Hydroponics, Nitrogen Metabolism (nitrogen
cycle, biological nitrogen fixation)

Chapter 7 - Plant Growth and Development:
Seed dormancy.
Germination - Hypogeal, epigeal and viviparous.
Definition and characteristics of growth.
Phases of growth, Conditions of growth, Differentiation, de- differentiation, redifferentiation
Sequence of developmental process in a plant cell
Growth regulators - auxins, gibberellins, cytokinines, ethylene and abscissic acid (role in brief)
Photoperiodism, Photomorphogenesis including brief account of Phytochromes (Elementary
idea)
Vernalization.

Std. - XI
Section II – Zoology
Unit 1 Diversity in Living World:
Chapter 8 - Kingdom Animalia:
1. Salient features of major phyla under kingdom Animalia. Classification of following phyla
with three to five salient features and two examples of each category: Porifera, Coelenterata,
Platyhelminthes,
Nemathelminthes,
Annelida,
Arthropoda,
Mollusca,
Echinodermata
and
Hemichordata.
Classification of phylum chordata upto class level with three to five salient features and two
examples of each category: Urochordata, Cephalochordata, Cyclostomata, Chondrichthyes,
Osteichthyes, Amphibia, Reptilia, Aves and Mammalia.
2. Zoological parks and Museums - General idea with list.
Unit 2 Structure and function of cell:

Chapter 9 - Organization of Cell:
1. Cell theory - brief account
2. Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell - structure and examples.
3. Plant cell and animal cell.
4. Nuclear organization - Nucleus, nucleolus and nucleoplasm.
5. Cell wall and cell membrane - (fluid mosaic model).
6. Cell organelles: Plastids, Mitochondria, Golgi complex, Lysosomes, Endoplasmic reticulum,
Vacuoles, Ribosome and Centrioles (ultrstructure and functions).
Microbodies, cytoskeleton, cilia and flagella.

Unit 3 Structural organisation in Animals:
Chapter 10- Study of Animal Tissues

1. Animal tissues - types: a) Epithelial tissues - simple epithelium (squamous, cuboidal,
columnar, Ciliated, glandular). - compound epithelium (stratified and transitional).
b) Connective tissue - (Areolar, Adipose, Tendons, Ligaments, Cartilage and Bone).

c) Muscular tissue - (Smooth, striated and cardiac).
d) Nervous tissue (Neurons, glial cells and types of neurons).
Chapter 11- Study of Animal Type:
1. Morphology, anatomy and functions of digestive, circulatory, respiratory, nervous, and
reproductive systems of cockroach (Brief account only)

Unit 4 Human Physiology:
Chapter 12- Human Nutrition:

1. Digestion, absorption and nutritional disorders:
ii) Digestive system in brief
iv) Physiology of digestion, gastrointestinal hormones, Peristalsis. Calorific value of
proteins, carbohydrates and fats
v) Absorption, assimilation and egestion
vi) Nutritional and digestive disorders – PEM, indigestion, constipation, Jaundice, vomiting and
diarrhoea
Chapter 13- Human Respiration:
1Breathing, respiration and common respiratory disorders:
Respiratory organs in animals (Recall only)
i) Respiratory system in brief
ii) Breathing- inspiration and expiration, Regulation
iii) Exchange of gases, transport of CO2 and O2 and tissue respiration.
Regulation of Respiration, Respiratory volumes
iv) Respiratory disorders- Asthma, Emphysema and occupational lung diseases.
Chapter 14- Human skeleton and Locomotion:
Brief account of human skeleton:
A] Axial Skeleton
B] Appendicular Skeleton
(Details to be dealt with the relevant practical)
Types of joints - synarthroses, amphiarthroses, and diarthroses.

Types of diarthroses - ball and socket, hinge, condyloid, pivot, saddle and gliding joints.
Types of Movement- Ciliary, Flagellar, Muscular
Mechanism of muscle movement: Contractile proteins and Muscle contraction Skeletal and
muscular disorders – Myasthenia gravis, Osteoporosis, arthritis, muscular dystrophy tetany and
gout.

Std. XI
Biology Practicals Syllabus

(A) List of experiments:
1. Study of parts of compound microscope.
2. Preparation of T. S. of dicot (sunflower) and monocot roots and stem to study different
plant tissues.
3 Study and describe three locally available flowering plants from the families-Solanaceae,
Fabaceae and Liliaceae with respect to types of root-(tap and adventitious), stem
(herbaceous and woody), leaf (arrangement, shape, venation, simple and compound) and
floral characters.
4. Study of plasmolysis in epidermal peels.
5 Study of osmosis by Potato osmometer
6. Study of structure and distribution of stomata in upper and lower surface of leaf.
7. To test the presence of sugar, starch, proteins and fats from suitable plant and animal
materials.
8) To study the digestion of starch by salivary amylase under different conditions of temperature
and pH.

(B) Study/ Observation of the following (Spotting):
1. Study of specimens and identification with reasons:
Bacteria, Amoeba, Oscillatoria, Spirogyra, Rhizopus, yeast, Agaricus, Usnea, Riccia, Funaria,
Nephrolepis, Cycas, sunflower and maize.
2. Comparative study of rates of transpiration in upper and lower surface of leaf.
3. Study of different modifications of root (fusiform root, parasitic root, epiphytic
root and pneumatophores).
4. Study of different modifications of stem (stem tuber, runner, and tendril).
5. Study of different modification of leaf (leaflet and stipular tendril), leaf Spines, phyllode).
6. Study of imbibition of seeds/raisins.
7 Study and identification of different types of inflorescence.
8 Study of tissues and diversity in shapes and sizes of plant and animal cells- palisade cells,
guard cells, parenchyma, collenchyma, sclerenchyma, xylem, phloem, squamous
epithelium, muscle fibres, mammalian blood smear, through temporary or permanent slides.
9. Observation and comments on experimental set up on:
a) Phototropism
b) Suction due to transpiration.
c) Apical bud removal
10. Study of specimens and their identification with reasons – Sycon, Hydra, Liverfluke, Ascaris,
Leech, Earthworm, Prawn, Silkworm Honey bee , Snail, Star-fish, Balanoglossus, Shark, Rohu,
Frog, Lizard, Pigeon and Rat.
11. Study of human skeleton (except skull, hand bones and foot bones) and different types of
joints (synovial, cartilaginous and fibrous joint with one suitable example).
12 Study of external morphology of earthworm, cockroach and frog through models.
13. Study of mitosis in onion roots tips and animal cells (grasshopper) from permanent slides.

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