Madhya Pradesh Board Biology Syllabus for Class 12

Madhya Pradesh Board Syllabus for Class 12 Biology

Biology syllabus for class XII of 2008-09 session

Time: 3 hours
Maximum Marks: 100 (75 Marks=Theory, 25 Marks= Practical)








Multicellularity : Plant Physiology

* Cell : Cell as a physiological unit, plant water relationship: Absorption and movement of water (Diffusion, Osmosis, Plasmolysis, Permeability, Water potential and Imbibition)

Theories of water Conduction, Root pressure, transpiration- mechanism, Importance of transpiration, Factors affecting the Rate of Transpiration and measuring equipments.

Mechanism of opening and closing of Stomata(potassium ion theory). Guttation – Definition and Mechanism. Mineral Nutrition : - Functions of minerals, essential major and minor elements, Deficiency symptoms of elements in plants. Translocation of solutes (translocation of solutes) Nitrogen metabolism with reference to Nitrogen Fixation.


* Photosynthesis: Importance, site of action (functional aspect of chlorophyll and its structure) Photochemical and Biochemical reactions. Electron transport system, Photophosphorylation (Cyclic and Non cyclic), C3 and C4 plants, Photorespiration, factors affecting the rate of photorespiration, factors affecting the rate of photosynthesis, Methods of Nutrition : Autotrophic, Heterotrophic, Saprophytic, Parasitic, Symbiosis and Insectivorous plants. Chemosynthesis.


* Respiration : Importance, Mechanism of respiration-Glycolysis, Krebs cycle, pentose Phosphate Pathway, Storage of energy in the Cell, Anaerobic respiration, Respiratory quotient, compensation point, Fermentation : Mechanism and importance.




Multicellularity: Animal Physiology

* Nutrition : Importance of nutrition, mode of nutrition in animals. Food-components of Food, Functions, Sources (In brief). Intra cellular and Extra cellular digestion : Invertebrates (cockroach). Study the digestive system of human- Ingestion, Digestion, Absorption, Assimilation and Egestion. Role of Hormones and Enzymes in digestion, Malnutrition, Under nourishment and Nutritional disorder.


* Gaseous exchange in animals : Respiratory organs of Earthworm, Cockroach and Human and its mechanism-Breathing and its regulation- Transport of gases by blood, Common respiratory disorder- Pranayam of prevention and cure.


* Circulation of body fluid : Open and close circulatory systems, study of Blood circulatory system in Cockroach and Human. Structure of human heart and its pumping action. Pulmonary and systemic Circulation. Heart palpitation and beat. Rhythmicity of heart.

Lymphatic system
: Lymph and its Circulation Related disorder of circulatory system, Hypertension, Ethroma, Arteriosclerosis, Angina, Identification of blood groups, ECG study of Pacemaker.


* Excretion of Nitrogenous waste products :

Ammonotelism, Ureotelism and Uricotelism, Excretory system of man and cockroach. Mechanism of urine formation in Human. Chemical constituents of urine. Role of Kidney in osmoregulation. Kidney failure and dialysis kidney transplantation. Role of liver in human excretory system.


* Locomotion and movement : Non muscular and Muscular movement. Movement & locomotion in Hydra Earthworm and Human.


* Human skeletal system : Study of axial and appendicular bones. Functions and kinds of girdle, Joints- Types and location in body. Disorder of bone and cartilage- Arthritis, Osteoporosis, Importance of Exercise - Mechanism of contraction, Role of white and red muscles in movement.


* Nervous co-ordination : Study of nervous system in Cockroach and Human. Structure and function of Brain and Spinal cord. Conduction of nerve impulse, Reflex action and its mechanism, Disorders of nervous system- Role of Dhyan-yoga and Nervous Co-ordination. Sense organs of Human - Structure and function and disorder of Eye, Ear, Nose and Tongue and Skin.


* Endocrine Glands in Human: - Location in body, secretion and functions of Hormones. Hormonal imbalance and diseases caused by it. Role of hormone as messenger and regulation of body activities. Importance (Role of Hormones in physiology) Feedback control. Immune System - Study of Immune system in Human, Disorders of Immune system.




Reproduction, Growth and Development

* Methods of reproduction in flowering plant-Micro propagation and Vegetative propagation. Sexual reproduction-Development of male and female gametophyte Pollination- Types, agencies and factors. Fertilization : Double fertilization and its importance. Incompatibility, Embryo development & Parthenogenesis.


* Plant growth : Growth regulators (Phytohormones) - Functions of Auxins, Gibberellins, Cytokinins, Ethylene, ABA hormones, Seed germination-Mechanism, types and factors affecting germination. Essential conditions for germination. Role of growth regulators in seed dormancy, Stress factor-Water and Salt. Plant growth movement - Common plant movement, flowering movement, Photoperiodism and Vernalisation.


* Reproduction in Animals: General account about Asexual reproduction. Male and female reproductive systems in Human. Structure and function of reproductive organs. Reproductive cycle in female, Gametogenesis. Structure of Sperm and Ovum. Fertilization- physical and chemical events: development of zygote (upto the formation of three germinal layers in Embryo) and Formation of organs (derivatives of three germinal layers in embryo) General aspects of placenta and Extra embryonic membranes.


* Growth in animals: Cellular growth, growth rate and growth curve, hormonal control on growth. Mechanism and types of Regeneration. Ageing- Cellular, Extra cellular and physiological changes. Role of exercise & diet on ageing. Theories of ageing.




Ecology and Environment

* Organism and its environment : Composition of environment. Factors- Air, water, soil, light, temperature, Range of tolerance. Ecological adaptations.


* Levels of Organization : Population, species, community, ecosystem and biosphere. Ecological interaction-symbiosis, mutualism commensalism, Parasitism, Predation, Competition.


* Ecosystem: Structure and functions, Productivity, Energy flow, Ecological efficiencies Decomposition and nutrient cycling. Study of major Biotic Communities Lake - forest, grassland, deserts (with reference to the State ecological point of view).


* Biotic succession : Ecological succession : types and mechanism.


* Natural resources-Types Conservation of important natural resources : Role of Human in use and missuses of natural resources- Medicinal and Economically useful plants & Animals' products (Chlorophytrum, Asparagus, Stiwia, Amla, Ashwagandha, Honey, Lac, Pearl, Cow Unine & Snake venom etc.) Efforts for alternate arrangement of resources.


* Environmental Pollution : Effect of different pollutants on biotic community and positive aspect to eradicate pollution.


* Global environmental changes- Green house effect, global warming, sea level rise, Effect of Ozone layer depletion on living beings.


* Biotic resources : Terrestrial and aquatic resources, Biodiversity- Assessment of benefits and losses, Natural and industrial tragedies, study of endangered species- extinction threatened species. Conservation of protected areas - Efforts of national, international and other agencies. Government and Non-government policies on environment. Concept on environment in Indian Culture, Ethics. Legislation on environment.




Biology and Human welfare

* Development of population and environment- Population- Factors of population growth, National, social and personal efforts on population Control. Effect of population on Nature -

Birth rate, Death rate Emigration and Immigration. Study of population growth in relation to sex and age ratio. Reproductive health - Common problems of adolescence. Elementary knowledge about Sex Health Education, Moral values and social responsibilities. General knowledge about sex related diseases. Mental and addiction related diseases- Impractical use of Drugs and Antibiotics and risks developed from their excessive use. Yoga- Study and Cure.


* Food production: Management , Study of common methods plantation (Grafting Scaling, seed Sowing and tissue culture) Hybridization, improvement in varieties (wheat, maize, Cow, and Hen). Bio fertilizer- Production of Wormi compost, Nadip, Tanke. Description of common crops, wheat rice, gram, ground nut and Jetropha and Karang for bio fuels. Common diseases of the following animals (cow, dog,hen,rat). Biopesticide- Uses, Preparation of pesticide from Neem, Madar and Datura. Benefits and hazards. Genetically modified food- Hybrid Crop, vegetables, and fruit etc. Perfect agriculture-general account of Organic agriculture (Rishi- Kheti).


* Modern concept of health in Biology and improvement in Human Race- Knowledge of modern technique of Vaccination. Application of Biotechnology. Treatment with modern technique of AIDS, STD and Cancer immune disorder, Cancer diseases (types, diagnosis, reasons and treatment). General knowledge of Biological war, Biopiracy and Bio potent. Biotechnology, Microbiology and Forensic science as a commercial subject, Hormone, interferon and immunomodulation, study the applied aspect of biology for the welfare of Human society. (Eugenics & Euthenics)









Practical Syllabus:-


Sl. No.




Core Experiment

17 Marks


Investigatory Exp.

2 Marks



2 Marks



2 Marks


Viva Voce

2 Marks





Multiculluarity in Plant- Plant physiology-

1- Study of of permanent slides: Parenchyma, collenchyma, Sclerenchyma, Xylem, phloem and various plant tissues.


2- Preparation of temporary slides of Root, and Stem of Monocot and Dict plant.


3- Study of plant pigments through Paper Chromatography.


4- Measurement the rate of Transpiration with the help of Ganong's potometer.


5- Study of Respiratory Quotient.


6- Study of Osmosis with Potato Osmoscope


7- Identification of various plant Diseases caused by deficiency of Minerals.


8- Study of essential conditions for Photosynthesis by Moll's Experiment


Multiculluarity in Animal- Animal physiology-

9- Effect of Temperature and PH on action of salivary Amylase.


10- Chemical test of Food Components (Starch, Protein and Fats).


11- Study the presence of uncommon substances in given Urine sample.
(Note- Teachers will prepare Urine Sample in the Laboratory.)


12- Study of Haemolysis and Crenation.


13- Study of Permanent slides of Transverse Section of Mammalian Bone, Cartilage, Spinal cord, Ovary, Testis, Stomach, Small Intestine, Liver, Lungs, Kidney.


14- Study of Bones of Girdles and Limbs of Human (Hands & Legs).


15- Preparation of slide of Human blood
(Note- Teachers will arrange Blood from blood bank)


Reproduction, Growth and Development-

16- Study of Germination in Monocot and Dicot Seeds.


Ecology and Environment-

17- Study of various components of any one Ecosystem.


18- Study of Pollutants of Soil, Air And Water.


19- Study of Soil- Physical and Chemical Properties, PH and Water holding capacity.


20- Study of Air- Study of percolate matter.


21- Study of Water- Test of present Salts, PH


Biology and Human welfare

22- Study of common symptoms of various Plant Diseases (Rust, Smut of cereals and Mildew of Vegetable).


23- Study of common Diseases of Animals (Viral and Bacterial Diseases of Cow, Dog and Hen.


24- Study of common symptoms of Malaria Typhoid, Polio, Hepatitis in Human.


Note- Three Experiments from each Unit along with One Experiment of the Third (3rd) Unit should be essentially done by each student in the session.


Investigatory Experiments:

1. Study of Essential conditions for Germination

2. Study of Different types of Germination.
3. Study of steps of Germination.
4. Study of Plants Movements.
5. Study of Diseases/ Disorders related with various systems of Human.
6. Study and important of Natural and Artificial methods of Vegetative Reproduction.
7. Study of components of various Ecosystem.
8. Study of Interactions in Ecosystem.
9. Roll of Human in person in maintenance of Natural Resources.
10. Personal Efforts to keep the Global Environment clean and healthy.
11. Study of the efforts to maintain the existence of Extinct and Endangered species of Wild Life.
12. Excursion of garden of Medicinal Plants and record of experience.
13. Study of ill effects of drugs on Human body.
14. Study of dreadful diseases- (AIDS & Cancer or any other)

Note- At the time of Practical Examination, the student will submit the Project File with at least two Projects. The teacher can add some more projects to develop interest in the subject related matter.

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