ICSE Board Psychology Syllabus for Class 12


ICSE Board Syllabus for Class 12 Psychology

There will be two papers in the subject.

Paper I - Theory: 3 hours     …70 marks

Paper II- Practical Work:      …30 marks

PAPER - I    (THEORY) – 70 Marks

Part I  (20 marks) will consist of  compulsory short answer questions relating to the fundamental aspects of the entire syllabus.

Part II  (50 marks) will consist of  two  sections,A and B.Candidates will be required to answer  two  out ofthree  questions from Section A and three  out of  five
questions from  Section B. Each question in this part shall carry 10 marks.SECTION  A

1.  Intelligence and Ability

(i) Intelligence: what is meant by intelligence - theories regarding the nature of intelligence; how intelligence is measured - the concept of IQ, intelligence tests – Individual Tests, Group Tests, Culture Fair Tests. Levels of intelligence and associated characteristics (from gifted through average to below average).  Different views regarding the nature of intelligence: general or multifaceted; quality or process; modern emphasis on social context; Intelligence: what is meant by intelligence - theories regarding the nature of intelligence; Theories of Intelligence: Two Factor Theory – Charles Spearman; Primary Mental Abilities – Thurstone; Raymond Cattell Fluid and Crystallised Intelligence; Guillford’s Structure of Intellect Model.Modern Theories: Information Processing; Triarchic Theory – Sternberg; Theory of Multiple Intelligence – Howard Gardner. How intelligence is measured - the concept of IQ; Intelligence Tests – Individual Tests - Stanford Binet, Wechsler, Group Tests – Raven’s Progressive Matrices, Culture Fair Tests – Cattell’s Culture Fair Test. Levels of intelligence and associated characteristics (from gifted through average to below average).

(ii) Aptitude,  Achievement and Interest: meaning of these terms. Reason for their assessment and means of assessment (different tools/ tests) used. What is meant by Aptitude - when aptitude needs to be assessed - the GATB (General Test Battery); meaning and usefulness of Achievement tests; why and how Interest is measured - the SCII (Strong Campbell Interest Inventory).
 
2.  Personality

(i) What is meant by Personality.Definitions of personality – Allport, Cattell, Eysenck.

(ii) Theories of Personality: Type Theories, Psychoanalytic Theory - Freud’s structure of personality; psycho-sexual stages of development; Post Freudians (inbrief); Humanistic - Rogers and Maslow; Traits -Allport, Cattell; Social/Behavioural Learning -Bandura and Rotter.Type Theory: Sheldon, Kreshtmer,
Hippocrates, Friedman, Charak Samhita of Ayurveda. Types and stereotypes - the usefulness and dangers of categorizing
personalities, e.g. introverts and extroverts Psychoanalytic Theory of Personality: Freud's levels of consciousness, structure of personality - Id, Ego and Superego; principles which they function; Psychosexual stages of development and fixation; Post Freudians: Erik Erikson, Horney; Humanistic theories of Rogers (concept of fully functioning persons) and Maslow (self actualization). Traits: Allport (central, secondary and cardinal traits),  Cattell  (source and surface traits). The five factor model of Costa and McCrae. Social Cognition and Social Learning theories of Bandura and Rotter. 

(iii)How personality is assessed: reports, inventories (MMPI), projective techniques -Rorschach Inkblot Test and Thematic Apperception Test.
The use of Self Reports - inventories/ questionnaires in assessing Personality - an understanding of the MMPI (Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory); what is meant by Projective Techniques - how the Rorschach Inkblot and TAT (Thematic Apperception Test) are used.

SECTIO  B

3.  Lifespan Development (i) Meaning of Development, growth and maturation. Why is the study of lifespan development important? Determinants – interaction ofheredity and environment, context of
development.
(ii) Infancy - motor, cognitive development, socioemotional development. Motor – milestones; cognitive – Piaget’s Sensory Motor Stage; socio-emotional development – emergence of attachment.
(iii) Childhood - motor, cognitive development, socio-emotional development. Motor development; cognitive development – Piaget’s Theory (Preoperational, Concrete and Formal Operation); emergence of self – gender, emergence of peer relationships; moral development – Kohlberg’s perspective – pre-conventional morality.
(iv) Adolescence - physical changes, cognitive development, socio-emotional development; some major concerns. Physical changes at puberty; Cognitive development – Piaget’s Formal Operations Stage; Socio-emotional development - forming an identity, dealing with sexuality and gender; some major concerns – delinquency,substanceabuse (drugs and alcohol) and eating disorders - bulimia, anorexia.


4.  Stress and Stress Management

(i) Meaning of stress - its basic nature.Stress as a process - stressors (negative and positive events); results of overload; the stages of GAS or the General Adaptation Syndrome (Selye's model). Cognitive appraisal of stress – primary and secondary.

(ii) Common causes of stress.External/situational: major life events, minor hassles of everyday life, work-related causes, the physical environment.
Internal/dispositional: Personality variablestraits/types.  (iii) Effects of stress on health and performance.Upsets the internal mechanism and balance - immune system affected, hypertension, heart problems, ulcers, diabetes, asthma. Relation between stress and performance - burnout.(iv) Stress management  - ineffective and effective strategies of handling stress.Coping with stress: Ineffective strategies -defense mechanisms - rationalization, projection, reaction formation, regression,repression, displacement, sublimation;  Effective strategies - relaxation training and yoga. Effective lifestyles – stress cycles –
wellness and distress.  5.  Psychological Disorders and Psychotherapy (i) Meaning of “Abnormal behaviour” -biological, psychological and socio - cultural
perspectives. Principles of classification of psychological disorders with reference to DSM IV.Different views of "abnormal" behaviour - the statistical stand - the biological/medical approach - the psychodynamic perspective - the sociocultural dimension; why classification of disorders is necessary - an understanding of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders - I

(ii) Characteristics of some psychological disorders: Anxiety - generalised, phobic, obsessive-compulsive; Mood - bi-polar, depression; personality - anti-social, histrionic, avoidant, dependent, passiveaggressive.What is meant by anxiety - different forms of anxiety disorders: phobias, obsession -compulsive disorders; Mood disorders- characteristics of severe depression, manicdepressive or bipolar disorder; personality - anti-social, histrionic, avoidant, dependent,
passive-aggressive.

(iii) Schizophrenia - meaning; main types; characteristics. Basic nature of Schizophrenia - characteristics of Disorganized Catatonic and
Paranoid Schizophrenia. 
(iv) Psychotherapy - Psychoanalysis; Clientcentred; Behavioural. Rehabilitation. What is meant by Psychotherapy - central features of psychodynamic therapies - free association, dream analysis, transference and counter transference; the principles on which client centred therapy has been developed. Behavioural therapies based on classical and operant conditioning or modelling. Rehabilitation.

6.  Social Thought and Social Behaviour

(i) Social Perception - attribution or the process through which people try to understand the reasons for others’ behaviour. How people determine whether others'behaviour is a result of internal causes or external factors - biases in forming judgments (attribution). (ii) Social Influence- how people try to change others’ behaviour; social norms; conformity and obedience - factors affecting them. What is meant by social norms - why people conform to social norms and why they digress - Asch's study on conformity; why and when people obey others - Milgram's experiment.

7.  Attitudes

(i) Meaning of “Attitude” - the relationship between attitude, perception, belief and behaviour; how attitudes are formed and
changed. What are attitudes - the components of attitude; how far attitudes determine behaviours: the process of forming attitudes - how attitudes change: persuasion and cognitive dissonance.

(ii) Prejudice – meaning of “prejudice” and discrimination; the origins of prejudice; how to combat prejudice. The Indian context. An understanding of the meaning of prejudice and how it works in the form of discrimination - causes of prejudice: social learning, realistic competition, social categorization and stereotyping; ways in which prejudice can be resisted. Caste, community and gender
stereotypes in the Indian context.

8.   Applications of Psychology  with reference to:

(i) Clinical and Counselling Psychology. Role of a counsellor and a clinical psychologist in dealing with individuals, couples, families
and groups.

(ii) Educational (School) Psychology. How Psychology helps to facilitate learning in school - students and teachers; individual problems: learning differences, teaching and evaluation techniques, school environment. Career counselling - how Psychology helps in the choice of a career - requirements of a field or job, testing individuals, matching individual and field/job.

(iii)Organisational Psychology. How Psychology helps to promote efficiency, well-being and profitability - study of factors involved. Recruitment, motivation,team.building and leadership skills, marketing and consumer behaviour. 

(iv) Crime.

How Psychology helps towards: understanding criminals, rehabilitating them,

preventing crime PAPER II (PRACTICAL WORK) – 30 Marks

Candidates will be expected to have completed  twostudies from those given below. Assessment will be based on a written report which should cover –
               
(I) Aim 

(II) Basic concept: Definition of concepts used and

related theory. Identification of variables –independent and dependent.

(III) Method -  (i)  Sample of the Study
(ii)  Procedure followed (data-collection, nature of raw data)
(iii)   Statistical Treatment of Data
(iv)  Results & Discussion
(v)  Conclusion

The practical work will be assessed by the teacher and a Visiting Examiner appointed locally and approved by the Council.
Mark allocation per study [15 marks]: Basic Concept 3 marks Method (correctness of procedure) 4 marks Results and discussion  4 marks Viva 4 marks
A. Statistics
To study group differences in Examination results. Groups: Any two classes or two sections of the same class with same subjects. Raw Data: Summated scores on all subjects in the annual examination for each student.: (i) Group analysis – Calculate mean scores (central tendency) and standard deviations (variability) for each group and make inter-group comparisons. (ii) Individual analysis – Calculate Z (standard) scores
for any two students from each class – one whose examination score is above the class mean and one whose examination score is below the class mean. Interpret the Z score in standard deviation units and indicate the percentage of scores that lie above/below the subject’s score (use a table that gives                the areas under the Normal curve corresponding to given values of Z).

(iii) Graphic Representation – bar diagram to depict the mean scores of both groups.

B. Attitudes

To study attitudinal differences regarding any one  of  following – Fashion, Work/Lifestyle, Marriage. Groups: Two generations (parents and children)        Or
Gender differences (boys and girls) of the same agegroup (preferably from Class XI or XII). Tools:  to construct a simple 5-point scale (10-15
items) with positively and negatively worded statements. Raw Data: Summated scores on all the statements for each respondent. Analysis: (i) Calculate mean attitudinal scores for each group and make inter-group comparisons.

(ii) Short, structured interview schedule constructed and administered to 8-10 students in each group.  The responses elicited can be used to draw inferences explain the inter-group differences, if any.
C.  Stress

To study the causes and effects of stress among school students. Group: Class X or Class XI students Tools: To construct two checklists - one indicating   the potential stressors along with a 5-point rating scale indicating their frequency of occurrence (very often, often, sometimes, rarely, very rarely).  The stressors
should include dispositional/internal variables (personality attributes, cognitive appraisal) and situational/external variables (life events, environmentalpressures – physical, social, cultural and academic stressors). The second checklist should indicate the effects ofstress (strain) – physical, psychological and behavioural along with their frequency of occurrence (on a 5-point rating scale). Analysis : To determine the stressors and the effects occur with the most to the least frequency and understand/explain each. OTE: No question paper for Practical work will be set by the Council.

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