ICSE Board Chemistry Syllabus for Class 9
ICSE Board Syllabus for Class 9 Chemistry
1. Matter and its Composition: Law of Conservation of mass
(i) Explanation of change of state of matter on the basis of Kinetic Theory of Matter. Main postulates of Kinetic Theory of Matter and explanation of change of state on the basis of. Inter-particle space and Interparticle attraction and collision.
(ii) Law of Conservation of Mass Statement and explanation with examples.
2. Study of Gas Laws
(i) The behaviour of gases under changes of temperature and pressure; explanation in terms of molecular motion (particles, atoms, molecules); Boyle’s Law and Charles’ Law; absolute zero; gas equation; simple relevant calculations.
The behaviour of gases under changes of temperature and pressure; explanation in terms of molecular motion (particles, atoms, molecules). Boyle’s Law (statement, mathematical form, simple calculations). Charles’ Law; (statement, mathematical form, simple calculations). Absolute zero; Kelvin scale of temperature. Gas equation P1 V1 / T1 = P2 V2 / T2; simple relevant calculations based on gas equation.
(ii) Relationship between Kelvin Scale and Celsius Scale of temperature; Standard temperature and pressure.
Conversion of temperature from Celsius Scale to Kelvin scale and vice versa. Standard temperature and pressure. (simple
3. Elements, Compounds and Mixtures
(i) General characteristics and differences between elements, compounds and mixtures.
Reasons for considering a substance as an element, compound or mixture may be given to make the concepts clear.
(ii) Types of mixtures: of two solids, a solid and a liquid, two liquids, liquid and gas, two gases.
Definition of mixture; each type of mixture should be shown to the students (including both homogeneous and heterogeneous types) – true solution, suspension and colloidal solution to make the concepts clear.
(iii) Separation of mixtures involving - use of a solvent, filtration, evaporation and distillation, fractional distillation, simple paper chromatography Centrifugation immiscible liquid.
The following examples should be used to illustrate the principles of separation of mixtures by using following methods
(a) use of solvent and filtration (e.g. sodium chloride + sand, (water as solvent), carbon and sulphur (Carbon tetra chloride as solvent)
(b) evaporation e.g. sodium chloride from its aqueous solution
(c) distillation e.g. purification of water containing dissolved solids.
(d) fractional distillation involves the difference in boiling points of liquids e.g. benzene + toluene.
(e) simple paper chromatography (limited to separation of colouring matter in ink);
(f) Centrifugation (involving separation of cream from milk).
(g) immiscible liquids (separating funnel e.g water + carbon tetra chloride).
4. The language of Chemistry
Symbol of an element; valency; formulae of radicals and formulae of compounds. Balancing of simple chemical equations.
Symbol – definition; symbols of the elements used often. Valency - definition; hydrogen combination and number of valence electrons of the metals and non-metals; mono, di, tri and tetra valent elements. Radicals – definition of radicals; formula and valencies of the radicals and formula of compounds.
Chemical equation – definition and examples of chemical equations with one reactant and two or three products, two reactants and one product, two reactants and two products and two reactants and three or four products; balancing of equations. (By partial equation method and hit and trial method)
5. Physical and Chemical Changes
(i) Definitions and distinction between Physical and Chemical changes. Simple experiments like dissolution of sugar
in water, burning of paper should be shown to make the concepts of physical and chemical change clear. More examples of such type may be given.
(ii) Conditions for chemical change. Close contact, heat, light, electricity, pressure, catalysts with examples.
(iii) Types of chemical change. Direct combination; decomposition; displacement; double decomposition with examples.
(iv) Energy changes in a chemical change. Exothermic and endothermic reactions with examples – evolution/absorption of heat, light and electricity.
(v) Burning: Definition and conditions of burning. Definition; conditions for burning (combustible substance, supporter of combustion and ignition temperature); comparison of respiration and burning; burning of magnesium or candle to show that substances gain weight on burning; students to be made aware of how the balance of O2 and CO2 is maintained in nature.
Water as a compound and as a universal solvent; its physical and chemical properties.
Why is water considered a compound? Chief physical properties should include: density, b.p, m.p. Experiment to show that the water we drink, contains dissolved solids and dissolved gases (air); their significance. Solutions as 'mixtures' of solids in water; saturated solutions; qualitative effect of temperature on solubility (e.g. solutions of calcium sulphate, potassium nitrate, sodium chloride in water).
Chemical Properties: The action of cold water on sodium and calcium; the action of hot water on magnesium and steam on iron; reversibility of reaction between iron and steam.
Students can be shown the action of sodium and calcium on water in the laboratory; they must be asked to make observations (equations for the above reactions) and form reactivity series based on reactions.
7. Atomic Structure
Structure of an Atom mass number and atomic number, Isotopes and Octet Rule. Definition of an element, definition of an atom; constituents of an atom - nucleus (protons, neutrons) with associated electrons; mass number, atomic number. Electron distribution in the orbits - 2n2 rule, Octet rule. Reason for chemical activity of an atom. Definition and examples of isotopes (hydrogen, carbon, chlorine).
8. The Periodic Table
Dobereiner’s Triads, Newland’s law of Octaves, Mendeleev’s contributions; Modern Periodic Law, the Modern Periodic Table.(groups and periods)
General idea of Do bereiner’s triads, Newland’s law of Octaves, Mendeleev’s periodic law, Discovery of Atomic Number and its
9. Study of the First Element –Hydrogen Position of the non-metal (Hydrogen) in the periodic table and general group characteristics with reference to valency electrons, burning, ion formation applied to the above mentioned element.
(i) Hydrogen from water
(ii) hydrogen from dilute acids
(iii) hydrogen from alkalies.
Hydrogen from water. Cold water and metals; hot water and metals; steam and metals; steam and non-metals. Application of activity series for the above mentioned preparations. Displacement of hydrogen from dilute sulphuric acid or hydrochloric acid by zinc or iron (no reaction with copper).
Displacement of hydrogen from alkalis (NaOH, KOH) by Zn, Al – unique nature of these elements.
(ii)The preparation and collection of hydrogen by a standard laboratory method other than electrolysis. In the laboratory preparation, the reason for using zinc, the impurities in the gas, their removal and the precautions in the collection of the gas must be mentioned.
Industrial manufacture of hydrogen by Bosch process with main reactions and conditions; separation of CO2 and CO
INTERNAL ASSESSMENT OF PRACTICAL WORK
Candidates will be asked to observe the effect of reagents and/or of heat on substances supplied to them. The exercises will be simple and may include the recognition and identification of certain gases listed below.
Gases: Hydrogen, Oxygen, Carbon dioxide, Chlorine, Hydrogen chloride, Sulphur dioxide, Hydrogen sulphide, Ammonia, Water vapour, Nitrogen dioxide.
Candidates are expected to have completed the following minimum practical work.
Simple experiments on:
1. Heat the given (unknown) substance, make observations, identify any products and make deductions where possible.
(a) copper carbonate, zinc carbonate
(b) washing soda, copper sulphate crystals
(c) zinc nitrate, copper nitrate, lead nitrate
(d) ammonium chloride, iodine, ammonium dichromate
2. Add dilute sulphuric acid to the unknown substance, warm if necessary, make observation, identify the product and make deductions.
(a) a sulphide
(b) a carbonate
(c) a metal
3. Apply the flame test to identify the metal in the unknown substance.
(a) a sodium salt
(b) a potassium salt
(c) a calcium compound
4. The percentage composition of a mixture of powdered salt and water-washed sand. The experiment would test techniques in dissolving, filtering or decanting, washing and weighing. It may be counted out as taking too much time. The weakness could be met by supplying a given weight of the mixture; also by choosing sand of such grain size that filtering or decanting will not be slow and yet not so large that separation of salt and sand cannot be done simply by sorting out mechanically the sand from the salt. The experiment should take about 20 minutes using 10g mixture (4g sand, 6g salt).
5. Simple experiments based on hard water and soft water – identification of hardness – simple softening – by heating the temporary hard water, using washing soda and advantage of using detergents over soap in hard water.
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