Himachal Pradesh Board Geography Syllabus for Class 12

Himachal Pradesh Board Syllabus for Class 12 Geography

A. Fundamentals of Human Geography (70 Periods) (30 Marks)

Unit1: Human Geography: Nature and Scope (3 Periods)

Unit 2: People (15 Periods):

  • Population of the world — distribution, density and growth

  • Population change-spatial patterns and structure; determinants of population changes;

  • Age-sex ratio; rural-urban composition

  • Human development - concept; selected indicators, international comparisons

Unit-3: Human Activities (25 Periods)

  • Primary activities - concept and changing trends; gathering, pastoral, mining, subsistence agriculture, modern agriculture; people engaged in agricultural and allied activities - some examples from selected countries;

  • Secondary activities-concept; manufacturing: agro-processing, household, small scale, large-scale; people engaged in secondary activities - some examples from selected countries

  • Tertiary activities-concept, trade, transport and communication; services; people engaged in tertiary activities - some examples from selected countries

  • Quaternary activities-concept; knowledge based industries; people engaged in quaternary activities - some examples from selected countries

Unit-4: Transport, Communication and Trade (19 Periods)

  • Land transport - roads, railway- rail network; trans-continental railways;

  • Water transport - inland waterways; major ocean routes;

  • Air Transport Inter continental air routes;

  • Oil and gas pipelines;

  • Satellite communication and cyber space

  • International trade-Basis and changing patterns; ports as gateways of international trade, role of WTO in international trade.

Unit-5: Human Settlements (8 Periods)

  • Settlement types - rural and urban; morphology of cities (case study); distribution of mega cities; problems of human settlements in developing countries.

Unit 6: Map Work outline Political Map of World- Identification only (2 marks)

B. India: People and Economy (70 Periods) (30 marks)

Unit-7: People

  • Population distribution, density and growth; composition of population; linguistic and religious; rural-urban population; change through time-regional variations; occupation;

  • Migration: international, national-causes and consequences;

  • Human Development - selected indicators and regional patterns.

  • Population, environment and development.

Unit-8: Human Settlements (8 Periods)

  • Rural Settlements - types of distribution;

  • Urban settlements - types, distribution, and functional classification.

Unit 9: Resources and Development

  • Land resources- general land use; agricultural land use-major crops; agricultural development and problems; Distribution of Wheat, Rice, Tea, Coffee, Cotton, Jute, Sugar cane and Rubber).

  • Water resources - availability and utilization-irrigation, domestic, industrial and other uses; scarcity of water and conservation methods-rain water harvesting and watershed management (one case study related with participatory watershed management to be introduced).

  • Mineral and energy resources-metallic (Iron ore, Copper, Bauxite, Manganese) and non-metallic (Mica, Salt) minerals and their distribution; conventional (Coal, Petroleum Natural gas and Hydro electricity) and non-conventional energy sources (solar, wind, biogas).

  • Industries - types and distribution; industrial location and clustering; changing pattern of selected industries - iron and steel, cotton textiles, sugar, petrochemicals and knowledge based industries; impact of liberalization, privatisation and globalisation on industrial location.

  • Planning in India- target area planning (case study); idea of sustainable development (case study)

Unit 10: Transport, Communication and International Trade (12 Periods)

  • Transport and communication - roads, railways, waterways and airways; oil and gas pipelines; national electric grids; communication networking - radio, television, satellite and internet.

  • International trade-changing pattern of India’s foreign trade; sea ports and their hinterland and airports.

Unit 11: Geographical Perspective on Selected Issues and Problems (One case study to be introduced for each topic) (10 Periods)

  • Environmental pollution; urban-waste disposal.

  • Urbanization-rural-urban migration; problem of slum.

  • Land Degradation.

Unit 12: Map Work - on outline political map of India for locating and labeling (3 Marks)

C. Practical Work (25 marks)

Unit I : Processing of Data and Thematic Mapping (20 Periods)

  • Sources of data.

  • Tabulating and processing of data; calculation of averages, measures of central tendency, deviation and rank correlation;

  • Representation of data- construction of diagrams: bars, circles and flowchart; thematic maps; construction of dot; chlropleth and isopleth maps

  • Use of computers in data processing and mapping.

Unit II: Field Study of Spatial Information Technology (Periods 10)

  • Field visit and study: map orientation, observation and preparation of sketch; survey on any one of the local concerns; pollution, ground water changes, land use and land-use changes, poverty, energy issues, soil degradation, drought and impacts, flood catchment area of school, Market survey and Household survey (any one topic of local concern may be taken up for the study; observation and questionnaire survey may be adopted for the data collection; collected data may be tabulated and analyzed with diagrams and maps)


Spatial Information Technology

  • Introduction to GIS; hardware requirements and software modules; data formats; roster and vector data, data input, editing & topology building; data analysis; overlay & buffer.


Books Recommended:

  • Fundamental of Human Geography

  • India - People and Economy

  • Practical Work in Geography-II

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