Himachal Pradesh Board Biology Syllabus for Class 12

Himachal Pradesh Board Syllabus for Class 12 Biology

I. Sexual Reproduction (35 Periods)
Pollination and Fertilization in Flowering plants.
Development of seeds and fruits.
Human reproduction : reproductive system in male and female, menstrual cycle. Production of gametes, fertilization, implantation, embryo development, pregnancy and parturition.
Reproductive health-birth control, contraception and sexually transmitted diseases.

II. Genetics and evolution (45 Periods)
Mendelian inheritance.
Chromosome theory of inheritance, deviations from Mendelian ratio (gene interaction-Incomplete dominance, co-dominance, complementary genes, multiple alleles).
Sex determination in human beings: XX, XY
Linkage and crossing over.
Inheritance pattern of haemophilia and blood groups in human beings.
DNA : replication, transcription, translation.
Gene expression and regulation.
Genome and Human Genome Project.
DNA fingerprinting.
Evolution : Theories and evidences.

III. Biology and Human Welfare (35 Periods)
Animal husbandry.
Basic concepts of immunology, vaccines.
Pathogens, Parasites
Plant breeding, tissue culture, food production.
Microbes in household food processing, industrial production, sewage treatment and ENE generation.
Cancer and AIDS.
Adolescence and drug/alcohol abuse.

IV Biotechnology and ITS Applications (30 Periods)
Recombinant DNA technology.
Applications in Health, Agriculture and Industry
Genetically modified (GM) organisms; bio safety issues.
Insulin and Bt cotton.

V. Ecology & Environment (35 Periods)
Ecosystems : components, types and energy flow.
Species, population and community.
Ecological adaptations.
Centres of diversity and conservation of biodiversity National Parks and sanctuaries, Environmental issues.

Time : 3 Hours
60 Periods




Two experiments

3 + 3 = 6


Slide preparation






Investigatory project and Viva based on the project



Record and Viva based on the experiment





List of Experiments:

1. Study pollen germination on a slide.
2. Collect and study soil from different sites and study them for texture and moisture content.
3. Study the pH and Water holding capacity of soil. Correlate with the kinds of plants found in them
4. Collect water from different water bodies around you and study them for pH clarity and presence of any living organisms.
5. Study the presence of suspended particulate matter in air at the two widely different sites.
6. Study of plant population density by quadrant method.
7. Study of plant population frequency by quadrat method.

Study/Observation of the Following (Spotting)

1. Study of flowers adapted to pollination by different agencies (weed, insect)
2. Study of pollen germination on a slide.
3. Study and identify stages of gamete development i.e. t.s. testis and t.s ovary through permanent slide.
4. Study meiosis in onion bud cell or grass hopper testis through permanent slide.
5. Study of t.s. of blastula through permanent slide.
6. Study Mendelian inheritance using seeds of different colour/size of any plant.
7. Study prepared prediqree charts of genetic traits such as rolling of tongue, blood groups, widow's peak, colour blindness.
8. Exercise on controlled pollination-Emasculation, tagging and bagging.
9. To identify common diseases causing organism like Ascaris, Antamoeba, Plasmo dium, ringworm. Comment on symptoms of diseases that they cause through permanent slides or specimens.
10. Study plants and animals found in xerophytic condition. Comment upon their adaptation/ecosystem.
11. Study plants and animals found in aquatic conditions. Comment upon their adaptation/ecosystem.
12. Study analogous and homologous organs in various plants and animals.

Books Recommended: Biology: Published by N.C.E.R.T., NEW DELHI.

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