# Gujarat Board Physics Syllabus for Class 12

## Gujarat Board Syllabus for Class 12 Physics

Standard 12 PHYSICS

Unit : 1 Static Electricity

-Friction electricity, Charges and their conservation, Coulomb's law-forces acting between two point charges, forces acting among many charge, principle of superposition and continuous charge distribution.

-Electric field and its physical interpretation , Electric field of a point charge, electric lines of force, electric dipole, Electric field of dipole and its behaviour in a uniform electric field.

-Electric potential-physical meaning, Electric potential due to a dipole and system of charges, Equipotential surfaces, Electric potential energy of system of two point charges and electric potential energy of an electric dipole in a static electric field.

-Statement of Gauss's Theorem about electric flux and to find electric field in case of (1) linear, charge distribution of infinite length (2) uniformly charged infinite plane (3) uniformly charged spherical shell (inside and outside the shell)

-Conductors and insulators, Presence of free and bound charges, Dielectric and electric polarization, General idea of capacitor and capacitance, Series and parallel connection of capacitors, Energy stored in capacitors, Capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor in absence and presence of dielectric, Van de Graff generator .

Unit : 2 Current Electricity

-Electric current, motion of charges in metallic substances, Drift velocity, Mobility and their relation with electric current, Ohm's law, V-1 characteristics of an electric resistance, Exception of Ohm's law (non-linear V-1 characteristics), Electrical resistivity and conductivity, Classification of substances with respect to conductivity, superconductivity ( basic concept), Carbon resistance, Color code for carbon resistor, Series and parallel connection of resistors.

-Dependence of resistivity on temperature
Internal resistance of an electric cell, Terminal voltage of a cell and e.m.f. (electromotive force), Series and parallel connection of cells, Kirchhoff s law.

-Kirchhoff s laws- explanation with an illustration, Whetstone's bridge and its use for the measurement of temperature, meter bridge- a special case of Whetstone's bridge.
Potentiometer- principle and its use to measure potential difference and to compare e.m.fs. of two cells.

-Electric power, thermal effect of electric current and Joule's law, chemical effects of electric current- Faraday's laws. of electrolysis, charging of a lead storage cell, solid state cells.

-Thermo electricity- origin, basic ideas of Seeback, Thomson and Peltier effect, thermo couple, thermo e.m.f., neutral and inversion temperatures.

Unit : 3 Magnetic effects of electric current and magnetism.

-Concept of magnetic field, Oersted's experiment, Biot-Savart's law, magnetic fields due to a straight and infinitely long conductor and a dng carrying current, Ampere's circuital law and its use in a straight and torroidal solenoids, force acting on charges moving through uniform electric and magnetic fields, cyclotron, force acting on a wire carrying current placed in a uniform magnetic field, force acting between two straight and long parallel conductors carrying current and definition of 1 ampere, torque acting on a current carrying coil placed in a uniform magnetic field, moving coil galvanometer-its current sensitivity and its conversion in an ammeter and a voltmeter.

-A coil carrying current as a magnetic dipole and its dipole moment, dipole moment of an electron performing circular motion, magnetic field due to a magnetic dipole (bar magnet)- on its axial and equatorial lines, lines of force of uniform magnetic field, Earth's magnetic field and magnetic elements, para, dia and ferromagnetic substances with examples and permanent magnets.

Unit : 4 Electromagnetic induction and alternating current(a.c.)

-Electromagnetic induction, Faraday's law, induced e.m.f and current, Lenz's law, Eddy currents, self and mutual induction.
A.C. currents, peak and r.m.s. values of alternating current and voltage, reactance, impedance, LC oscillations, LCR series circuit(phasor) - resonance circuits. Q factor, power in AC circuits, watt-less current.

-A.C. generator and transformer

Unit : 5 Electromagnetic waves:

Electromagnetic waves and their characteristics (qualitative), transverse nature of electromagnetic waves,.
Electromagnetic spectrum (radio, microwaves, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, X-rays, gamma rays and primary information about their uses, propagation of electromagnetic waves in atmosphere.

Unit : 6 Optics:

-Reflection by light-spherical mirrors, formula of mirror, refraction of light, total internal reflection and its uses, spherical lens, equation of a thin lens, lens-maker formula, magnification, power of a lens, combination of thin lenses in contact, refraction and dispersion of light by a prism, spectrometer and its use to measure refractive index of the material of prism, rainbow, scattering of light, blue color of sky, crimson color of sky at sun rise and sun set.

-Optical devices- compound microscope, astronomical telescope and their magnification power.
Wave front and Huygene's principle, reflection and refraction of plane waves from plane surfaces using wave front (qualitative idea), interference- young's double slit experiment and equation of width of fringes, coherent sources and stationary interference, diffraction- diffraction by a single slit, width of central maximum, difference between interference and diffraction, resolving power of microscope and telescope, polarization- plane polarized light, Nicole prism, Brewster's law, Uses of plane polarized light and Polaroid.

Unit : 7 Atom and nucleus:

-Experiment of (x:-bombardment, Rutherford's atomic model, Bohr's model, quantization of energy.

-Hydrogen spectrum- energy levels, excitation and ionization potentials, emission and absorption spectra, emission of X-rays, Moseley's law and atomic number.

-Spontaneous and stimulated emission-maser and laser.
Structure and dimensions of nuclei, atomic mass, isotopes, isobars, isotones, mass energy relation, mass defect, binding energy per nucleon and its variation with atomic mass number, form of nuclear, forces.

-Radioactivity, a, P and y radiations and their properties law of radioactive disintegration half life and decay constant, simple explanation of (X, 0 and y decay, nuclear reactions- nuclear fission and fusion, energy sources of stars only concept)

Unit : 8 Radiation & Dual Nature of Matter:

Photoelectric effect, Einstein's equation of photoelectric effect, particle nature of light, photocell and its uses. I
Matter waves- wave nature of particles, De Broglie's equation, De Broglie wavelength of electron, Division-Germer's experiment.
Primary concept of electron microscope,

Unit : 9 Semiconductor Devices

Energy bands in solids substances (qualitative concept), Metals in the context with band theory, Difference between non conductors and semiconductors', Intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors, PN junction, Semiconductors, Diode- characteristics in forward and reverse bias, Diode as a rectifier, Solar cell, Photo diode, LED, Zener diode as a voltage regulator, Junction transistor, Working of a transistor, Characteristics of transistor, Use of transistor as an amplifier (common emitter configuration) and as an oscillator, Logic gates (OR, AND, NOT, NAND and OR), Primary concept of I.C.

Unit : 10 Communication System

Primary concepts of Analogue and digital communication, Necessity of modulation, Simple amplitude modulation and detection, quality of digital communication, Data transmission and reception, Principle of fax and modem
Space communication- sky and space wave propagation, Satellite communication, Use in remote sensing.
Line communication, Two wire lines, Cables, Telephone links, Optical communication ( Optical fiber, use of laser), basic principle of light modulation.

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