Gujarat Board Geography Syllabus for Class 12
Gujarat Board Syllabus for Class 12 Geography
Geography (70 Periods) 35 Marks
Unit 1: Human Geography: Nature and Scope Periods 3
Unit 2: People Periods 15
-Population — distribution, density and growth
-Population change-spatial patterns and structure; determinants of population change;
-Age-sex ratio; rural-urban composition;
-Human development - concept; selected indicators, international comparisons
Unit 3: Human Activities Periods 25
-Primary activities - concept and changing trends; gathering, pastoral, mining, subsistence agriculture, modern agriculture; people engaged in agricultural and allied activities – some examples from selected countries.
Secondary activities-concept; manufacturing: types – household, small scale, large scale; agro based and mineral based industries; people engaged in secondary activities – some examples from selected countries.
-Tertiary activities-concept; trade, transport and communication; services; people engaged in tertiary activities - some examples from selected countries
-Quaternary activities-concept; knowledge based industries; people engaged in quaternary activities - some examples from selected countries
Unit 4: Transport, Communication and Trade Periods 19
-Land transport - roads, railways; trans-continental railways.
-Water transport- inland waterways; major ocean routes.
-Air transport- Intercontinental air routes.
-Oil and gas pipelines.
-Satellite communication and cyber space.
International trade-Bases and changing patterns; ports as gateways of international trade, role of WTO in International trade.
Unit 5: Human Settlements Periods 8
-Settlement types - rural and urban; morphology of cities (case study); distribution of mega
cities; problems of human settlements in developing countries.
Unit 6: Map Work on identification of features based on above units on the outline Political map of World.
Part B. India: People and Economy 70 Periods
Unit 7: People Periods 12
-Population : distribution, density and growth; composition of population - linguistic, religious; sex, rural-urban and occupational– polulation change through time and regional variations;
-Migration: international, national-causes and consequences;
-Human development: selected indicators and regional patterns;
-Population, environment and development.
Unit 8: Human Settlements Periods 8
-Rural settlements - types and distribution;
-Urban settlements - types, distribution and functional classification.
Unit 9: Resources and Development Periods 28
-Land resources- general land use; agricultural land use, Geographical conditions and distribution of major crops (Wheat, Rice, Tea, Coffee, Cotton, Jute, Sugarcane and Rubber), agricultural development and problems.
Water resources-availability and utilization-irrigation, domestic, industrial and other uses; scarcity of water and conservation methods-rain water harvesting and watershed management (one case study related with participatory watershed management to be introduced).
-Mineral and energy resources- distribution of metallic (Ironore, Copper, Bauxite, Manganese) ; non-metallic (Mica, Salt) minerals; conventional (Coal, Petroleum, Natural gas and Hydro electricity) and non-conventional energy sources (solar, wind, biogas) and conservation.
-Industries - types, factors of industrial location; distribution and changing pattern of selected industries-iron and steel, cotton textiles, sugar, petrochemicals, and knowledge based industries; impact of liberalization, privatisation and globalisation on industrial location; industrial clusters.
Planning in India- target area planning (case study); idea of sustainable development (case study).
Unit 10: Transport, Communication and International Trade Periods 12
-Transport and communication-roads, railways, waterways and airways: oil and gas pipelines; national electric grids; -communication networkings - radio, television, satellite and internet.
-International trade- changing pattern of India’s foreign trade; sea ports and their hinterland and airports,
Unit 11: Geographical Perspective on Selected Issues and Problems (One case study to be introduced for each topic) Periods 10
-Environmental pollution; urban-waste disposal.
-Urbanisation, rural-urban migration; problems of slums.
Unit 12: Map work on locating and labelling of features based on above units on outline political map of India 3 Marks
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