Gujarat Board Chemistry Syllabus for Class 11

Gujarat Board Syllabus for Class 11 Chemistry

Standard 11 Chemistry

Unit - 1 Some basic concepts of chemistry :-

Importance of studying chemistry, physical quantities and their s.1 units, dimensional analysis precision and significant figures, classification of matter laws of chemical combination, Dalton's atomic theory, mole concept, atomic, molecular and molar masses. Percentage composition and molecular formula, stoichiometry of chemical reactions.

Unit - 2 States of matter

Gaseous State : Measurable properties of gases, the gas laws, ideal gas equation, kinetic molecular theory, deviation of real gases from ideal behaviour; liquefaction of gases, critical temperature and its importance.
Liquid state : Measurable properties of liquids, qualitative description of vapour pressure, surface tension and viscosity.
Solid state : Classification of solids based on different binding forces.

Unit - 3 : Atomic structure

* Fundamental particles, Rutherford Model of an atom, Nature of electromagnetic radiation, emission spectrum of hydrogen atom, :concept of energy levels (orbits).

* Drawbacks (weaknesses) of Bohr's model, modern concept of structure of atom (elementary idea only) concept of orbits and orbitals, main four quantum numbers, electronic configuration of elements, Aufbau Principle, Pauli's principle, Hund's rule.

Unit - 4 Classification of elements and periodicity in properties

* The need of classification of elements, the significance of (i) Mendeleev's periodic law (ii) Atomic number and periodic taw, present (modern) form of the periodic table. The IUPAC nomenclature for the elements with Z >100, electronic configuration of the elements and periodic table.

* Types of elements : s, p, d and f block elements, periodic thrends in properties; Ionization energy, electron affinity, atomic radii, valency..

Unit - 5 Fist law of thermodynamics and chemical energetic:

* Some basic concepts : Types of systems, surrounding, types of processes, intensive and extensive properties, state functions, irreversible process. Zeroth Law and First Law of thermodynamics, internal energy, Enthalpy work, heat capacity, specific heat capacity, molar heat capacity, enthalpy changes during phase transitions, enthalpy change in chemical reactions, standard enthalpy of formation, Hess's law of constant heat summation, bond enthalpy, Measurement of enthalpy of reactions, energy of combustion reactions, source of energy. Sun as primary source of energy, alternative sources of energy.

Unit-6 : Chemical bounding and molecular structure

* Kossel - Lewis approach of bomnding, ionic bond lattice structure and energy. Born-Haber cycle, covalent bond - Lewis structure of covalent bond, resonance structures, geometry of molecules, VSEPR model, polarity of bond, electro negativity, valence bond approach, concept of resonance, directional properties of bond, Hybridization SP, SP2, SP3, qualitative approach.

Unit - 7 Equilibrium reactions and equilibrium.

* Dynamic nature, of equilibrium, equilibrium in, physical processes, equilibrium, in chemical reactions, law of chemical equilibrium, derivation of relationship between Kp and Kc, Le­ chatelier's principle.

Unit - 8 : Equilibrium - II : Inonic equilibrium in solutions.

* Equilibria involving inos, various concepts of acids and bases - Arrhenius, Bronsted

Lowry and Lewis, dissociation of acids and bases, acid-base equilibrium, ionization of water. PH scale, hydrolysis of salts, calculations of PH of salt solutions, acid-base titration using indicators, solubility equilibrium and solubility product, Common ion effect, elementary idea of buffer solutions.

Unit - 9 : Redox reactions

* Odixation and Reduction, Electron transfer concept, redox reactions in aqueous solutions, oxidation number, balancing of chemical equations in redox reactions by oxidation number method and ion-electron method or half-reaction method, simple idea of electrode potential, stoichiometry of redox reactions in solutions.

Unit - 10 : Principles and processes of extraction of elements.

* Modes of occurrence, Chemical Principles underlying concentration of ores, reduction oxidation (electronation, de-electronation), refing of metals.

Unit - 11 : Hydrogen :

* Unique position in periodic Table, Occurrence, isotpes, dihydrogen - preparation (including commercial preparation) properties, reactions and uses.

* Hydride - molecular, saline and iterstitial water : Structure and aggregation of water molecules (physical and chemical properties) hard and soft water, water softner, heavy water, hydrogen peroxide, hydrogen economy, use of liquid hydrogen as a fuel.

Unit - 12 : S-block Elements :

* General introduction of s-block elements abundance occurrence, anomalous properties of the first elements in each group, directional relationship of entire groups (diagonal relationship)

* Alkali metals : Occurrence, electronic configuration, trends in atomic and physical properties (JE, atomic and inonic radiil), reactivity and electrode potential, reactions with oxygen, hydrogen, halogen and liquid ammonia. Basic properties of oxides and hydroxides, halides. Li and Na-Occurrence, extraction, Properties and uses, Na2, C03

* Alkaline earth metals :,Occurrence, electronic configuration, trends in atomic and physical properties (IE, atomic and inonic radil) reactivity and electrode potential, reactions with non metals, oxides, hydroxides and halides. Solubility and thermal stability of oxosalts.

* Magnesium - Occurrence, extraction, properties and uses compounds of alkaline earth metals like CaO, Ca(OH)2, Industrial uses of lime and lime stone, cement.

Unit - 13 : Some Plock elements :

* Boron : Occurrence, isolation. physical and chemical properties, borax, boric acid, boron hydride, halides, (Elementary idea of boranens, diborance and borates) uses of boron and its compounds.

* Carbon : Terrestrial abundance and distribution, allotropes like graphite, diamond, and fullerences elementary idea only). Atomic and physical properties, Chemical properties, oxides, carbides, halides, sulphides, uses of carbon.

* Nitrogen : Terrestrial abundance and distribution dinitrogen, isolation., atomic and physical properties, chemical reacitivty, Fixation of nitrogen industrial and biological.

* Ammonia : Industrial preparation, Haber's process only. Important properties and reactions.

* Oxides of nitrogen : Preparation, Structures (Skeetal only) pp-pp bonding. Nitric acid, industrial production (Ostwald process). Uses of nitrogen and its compounds.

* Oxygen : Terrestrial abundance and distribution, dioxygen - Isolation, atomic and physical properties, chemical reactivity, acidic, basic and amphoteric oxides.

* Ozone : Preparation, structure and some oxidizing properties.

Unit - 14 : Organic chemistry - some basic preinciples.

* Tetravalency of carbon, hybridization, s and p (Pi) bond, shapes of simple molecules.
Functionla groups: -C = C,> C = C > and functional groups containing halogen, oxygen, nitrogen and sulphur, homologous series, isomerism (structural only). General introduction to naming the organic compounds - trivial names and IUPAC nomenclature, Illustration With simple examples. Electronic displacement in a covalent bond, inductive effect, electrometric effect, resonance and hyper­ conjugation, Fission of a covalent bond; free radicals, electrophiles, nucleophiles, carbocations and carbanious.

* Common types of organic reactions : substitution, addition, elemination and rearrangement reactions, illustration with examples.

Unit - 15: Hydrocarbons

* Classification of hydrocarbons, alkanes and cycloalkanes -.lUPAC nomenclature, conformations of alkanes and cyploalkanes (Ethane, propane, butane and cyclohexane), 3D structures and 2D projections (Sawhorse and Newmann)

* Alkenes and Alkynes : Nomenclature, geometrical isomerism in alkenes, stability of alkenes, general methods of preparation, physical properties, chemical reactions - reactivity, mechanism of electrophillic addition, reactions in alkenes, Markovnikoff's rule, peroxide effect, acidic characteristics of alkynes, polymerization reactions - dienes, concept of delocatlization of electrons, addition reaction reaction, in dienes (1 1 2 and 1, 4 addition)

* Aromatic hydrocarbons :

* Benzene and its homologues, isomerism, IUPAC nomenclature sources of aormatic hydrocarbons, (Coal and petroleum) structure of benzene, resonance, delocalisation, concept of aromaticity - an elementary idea. Chemical reactions of benzane, mechanism of electrophillic substitution, reactions, directive effect of substituents and their effect on reactivity, polynuclear hydrocarbons and their toxicity, o6ly reactions of toluene.

* Petroleum and petrochemicals:

* Compostion of curde Oil, fractionation, uses of different fractions, quality of gasoline, LPG and CNG. Cracking and reforming, petrochemicals.

Unit - 16: Purification and Characterisation of carbon compounds.

* Purification of carbon compounds, filtration, Crystallisation, Sublimation, distillation, differential extraction, chromatography.

* Qualitative analysis : Detection of nitrogen, sulphur, phosphorus and halogen (basic principles only).

* Determination of molecular mass :- Silver salt method, chloroplatinate salt method, use of mass spectrometer for determining accurate molecular mass (elementary idea only), Calculations of empirical and molecular formulae.

Unit - 17 Organic compounds with functional groups containing halogens.

* Haloalkanes and haloarenes: Nature of C-X bond in haloalkanes and haloarenes, nomenclature, physcial properties, Chemical reactions - with emphasis mechanism of substitution reactions, difference in relativity of C-X bond in haloalkanes and haloarenes.

* Some commercially important compounds - names and structures of some compounds with simple structures and their uses.

Unit - 18 Environmental Chemistry:

* Enviromental pollutants, soil, water and air pollution, chemical reactions in atmosphere, kind of smog, major atmospheric pollutants, acid rain, ozon and its reactions, effects of the depletion of ozone layer, green house effect and global warming - industrial air pollution, green chemistry for reducing pollution.

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