Gujarat Board Biology Syllabus for Class 12

Gujarat Board Syllabus for Class 12 Biology

Standard 12 BIOLOGY

Unit : 1 Physiology of Plants

-Cell as a functional unit, Composition of protoplasm; water relations; Absorption and conduction (Diffusion, osmosis, plasmolysis, permeability, water potential, absorption) 

-Theories of ascent of sap - root pressure, suction force transpiration - importance. 
Factors affecting rate o transpiration; mechanism of stomatal opening and closing; (Potassium ion theory); factors affecting movement of guard cells.

-Mineral absorption - functions of mineral elements; essential major elements and trace elements; deficiency symphoms of elements; theories of translocation; translocation of solutes; Nitrogen metabolism, Nitrogen metabolism with emphasis on biological nitrogen fixation.

-Photosynthesis - signifcance; site of photosynthesis (functional importance of chlorophyll structure) photochemical and bio synthetic phases. Electron transport system;

-Photo phosphorylation (cyclic and noncyclic)
C3 and C4 metabolic pathway; photo respiration, factors affecting - photosynthesis; mode of nutrition (Autotrophic, heterotrophic, saprophytic, parasitic and insectivorous plants) chemosynthetic nutrition.

Unit : 2 Physiology of Animals

-Nutrition and its types; nutrients food and vitamins; digestive system of invertebrate (Cockroach)

-Digestive system and digestion process in humans (ingestion, digestion, absorption, assimilation, formation of faecal matter, defecation) (Intra cellular and extra cellular); role of enzymes and hormones in digestion.

-Malnutrition and under nutrition; disorder related to nutrition. Gaseous exchange in animals (Earthworm, Cockroach)

- Respiration in humans; respiratory organs; mechanism of respiration.

- Breathing and its regulation; transport of gases through blood; common respiratory disorders, prevention and cure.
Circulation of body Fluids - Open circulatory system in coc kroach; closed circulatory system in humans; Blood and its composition and beating process; pulmonary and systemic circulation; Heart beat and pulse; rhythmicity of heart, beat. 
Blood related disorders - Hypertention, atheroma, and arteriosclerosis;  ECG - Pace maker; lymphatic system; immunity, immune system.

-Elimination of nitrogenous excretory substances - Amnotelism, Ureotelism, Urecotelism Excretory system of cockroach and humans Composition and formation of urine.

- Role of kidney in osmoregulation, Kidney failure; dialysis, Kidney-transplantation, Role of ADH, role of skin and lungs.
Locomotion and movements -

- Human skeleton, axial and appendicular, Cranium and cage bones; Joints and their types Bone, Cartilage and their disorders (Carthritis, osteoporosis) Mechanism of muscle contraction.
Nervous system of Cockroach and humans.

- Human nervous system; structure and function of brain and spinalcord, conduction of nerve impulse; reflex action; Sensory organs - -structure and function of eye, ear, nose, tongue.
Human endocrine system - Hormones and their functions; hormonal regulation and diseases; hormones as neurotransmitters and regulators; Hypothelamo – hypophysial axis, feed back controls.

Unit : 3 Reproduction, Growth and Development

-Modes of reproduction in flowering plants; vegetative propagation (natural and artificial); significance of vegetative progagation; sexual reproduction; development of. male and female gametophyte, Pollination (types and factors); Double fertilization, incompatibility, embryo development, parthenogenesis and parthenocarpy.

-Characters of plant growth, growth regulators (phytohormones) Auxins, Gibberellins, Cytokinins, ethylene, ABA, Seed germination - mechanism and factors; role of growth regulators in domancy of seeds; senescence, abscission. Plant movement, geotropism, phototropism, turgor growth movements, (tropics, nastic, and nutation) Flowering, Photoperiodism, -Vernalization

-Sexual and asexual reproduction in animals in general. Male and female reproductive system of humans; reproductive cycle in human, oogenesis, fertilization - physical and chemical events.
Embryonic development up to three germinal layers and their derivatives. Embryonic membranes, General aspect of placenta.

-Cellular growth Growth rate, growth map, growth - regulation and hormones; Mechanism and types of- regeneration. Ageing - cellular and extra cellular changes;principles of ageing.

Unit : 4 Ecology and Environment

-Organism and their environment; factors - Air, Water, Soil, temperature, light, biota; range of tolerance; ecological adaptations

-Levels of organisation - Structure and functions, productivity, energy flow, ecological efficiencies; decomposition and nutrient cycling; major biomes - forests, grass lands and deserts.
ecological succession - types and mechanism; Natural resources types and resources. Environment pollution - kinds, sources and abatement of air, water soil and noise pollution.

-Global environmental changes, green-house effects; global warming; sea level rise and ozone layer depletion. Living resources
- Terrestrial, marine and other aquatic resources; biodiversity - benefits and evaluation, threats.
Endangered species, extinctions, conservation of biodiversity (biosphere reserves and other protected areas) National and international efforts both governmental and non governmental; environmental ethics and legislation.

Unit : 5 Biology and Human Welfare

-Population, environment and development; Population growth and factors (Vitality, mortality, immigration, emigration, age and sex ratio)

-Impact of population growth; Reproductive health; common problems of adolescence; social and moral implications; mental and addictive disorders; population as a resource.

-Food production, Hybridization, improved varieties, biofertilizers plant tissue culture and its applications; crop and animal diseases; biopesticides; genetically modified food; biowar; biopiracy, biopatent, biotechnology and sustainable agriculture.

-Recent research in vaccines, organ transplantation, immune disorders; modern techniques in diseases diagnosis; AIDS, STD, Cancer (types, causes, diagnosis, remedy) Biotechnology in therapeutics - hormones, interferon and immuno modulations.

Gujarat Board Best Sellers

In order to keep pace with technological advancement and to cope up with Gujarat Board examinations, Pearson group has launched Edurite to help students by offering Books and CDs of different courses online.