CBSE Board Physics Syllabus for Class 12
CBSE Board Syllabus for Class 12 Physics
CBSE Board 12th Physics Syllabus 2013
Class XII (Theory)
Unit I: Electrostatics
Electric Charges; Conservation of charge, Coulomb’s law-force between two point charges, forces
between multiple charges; superposition principle and continuous charge distribution.
Electric field, electric field lines, electric field due to a point charge; electric dipole, electric field
due to a dipole at axial and equitorial position; torque on a dipole in uniform electric field.
Electric flux, statement of Gauss’s theorem and its applications to find field due to infinitely long
straight wire, uniformly charged infinite plane sheet and uniformly charged thin spherical shell
(field inside and outside).
Electric potential, potential difference, electric potential due to a point charge, a dipole and
system of charges; equipotential surfaces, electrical potential energy of a system of two point
charges and of electric dipole in an electrostatic field.
Conductors and insulators, free charges and bound charges inside a conductor. Dielectrics and
electric polarisation, capacitors and capacitance, combination of capacitors in series and in
parallel, capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor with dielectric medium between the plates,
energy stored in a capacitor. Van de Graaff generator.
Unit II: Current Electricity
Electric current, flow of electric charges in a metallic conductor, drift velocity, mobility and their
relation with electric current; Ohm’s law, electrical resistance, V-I characteristics (linear and
non-linear), electrical energy and power, electrical resistivity and conductivity. Carbon resistors,
colour code for carbon resistors; series and parallel combinations of resistors; effect of temperature
emf and potential difference of a cell, internal resistance of a cell, combination of cells in series
and in parallel.
Kirchhoff’s laws and simple applications. Wheatstone bridge, metre bridge.
Potentiometer - principle and its applications to measure potential difference and for comparing
emf of two cells; measurement of internal resistance of a cell.
Unit III: Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetism
Concept of magnetic field, Oersted’s experiment.
Biot - Savart law and its application to current carrying circular loop.
Ampere’s law and its applications to infinitely long straight wire. Straight and toroidal solenoids,
force between two parallel current-carrying conductors-definition of ampere.
Force on a current-carrying conductor in a uniform magnetic field. Torque experienced by a
current loop in uniform magnetic field; moving coil galvanometer-its current sensitivity and
conversion to ammeter and voltmeter.
Force on a moving charge in uniform magnetic and electric fields. Cyclotron.
Current loop as a magnetic dipole and its magnetic dipole moment. Magnetic dipole moment of a
revolving electron. Magnetic field intensity due to a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) along its axis and
perpendicular to its axis. Torque on a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) in a uniform magnetic field; bar
magnet as an equivalent solenoid, magnetic field lines; Earth’s magnetic field and magnetic elements.
Para-, dia- and ferro - magnetic substances, with examples. Electromagnets and factors affecting
their strengths. Permanent magnets.
Unit IV: Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Currents
Electromagnetic induction; Faraday’s law, induced emf and current; Lenz’s Law, Eddy currents.
Self and mutual inductance, displacement current.
Alternating currents, peak and rms value of alternating current/voltage; reactance and impedance;
LC oscillations (qualitative treatment only), LCR series circuit, resonance; power in AC circuits,
AC generator and transformer.
Unit V: Electromagnetic waves
Displacement current, Electromagnetic waves and their characteristics (qualitative ideas only).
Transverse nature of electromagnetic waves.
Electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, X-rays, gamma
rays) including elementary facts about their uses.
Unit VI: Optics
Reflection of light, spherical mirrors, mirror formula. Refraction of light, total internal reflection
and its applications, optical fibres, refraction at spherical surfaces, lenses, thin lens formula, lens-
maker’s formula. Magnification, power of a lens, combination of thin lenses in contact. Refraction
and dispersion of light through a prism, rainbow.
Wave optics: wave front and Huygens’ principle, reflection and refraction of plane wave at a plane
surface using wave fronts. Proof of laws of reflection and refraction using Huygens’ principle.
Interference, coherent sources, Young’s double slit experiment and expression for fringe width.
Diffraction due to a single slit, width of central maximum. Polarisation, plane polarised light; malus
law, Brewster’s law, uses of plane polarised light and Polaroids.
Optical instruments: Microscopes, astronomical telescopes (reflecting and refracting). Magnifying
powers and resolving power of microscopes and astronomical telescopes.
Unit VII: Dual Nature of Matter and Radiation
Dual nature of radiation. Photoelectric effect, Experimental observation and their sginificance,
Hertz and Lenard’s observations; Einstein’s photoelectric equation-particle nature of light.
Matter waves-wave nature of particles, de Broglie relation. Davisson-Germer experiment.
Unit VIII: Atoms & Nuclei
Alpha-particle scattering experiment; Rutherford’s model of atom; Bohr model, energy levels,
Composition and size of nucleus, atomic masses, isotopes, isobars; isotones. Radioactivity-
alpha, beta and gamma particles/rays and their properties; radioactive decay law.
Mass-energy relation, mass defect; binding energy per nucleon and its variation with mass number;
nuclear fission, nuclear reactor, nuclear fusion.
Unit IX: Electronic Devices
Semiconductors; semiconductor diode – I-V characteristics in forward and reverse bias, diode
as a rectifier; LED, photodiode, solar cell, and Zener diode; Zener diode as a voltage regulator.
Junction transistor, transistor action, characteristics of a transistor; transistor as an amplifier
(common emitter configuration) and oscillator. Logic gates (OR, AND, NOT, NAND and NOR).
Transistor as a switch.
Unit X: Communication Systems
Elements of a communication system (block diagram only); bandwidth of signals (speech, TV
and digital data); bandwidth of transmission medium. Propagation of electromagnetic waves in
the atmosphere, sky and space wave propagation. Need for modulation. Production and detection
of an amplitude-modulated wave.
Every student will perform 10 experiments (5 from each section) & 8 activities (4 from each
section) during the academic year. Two demonstration experiments must be performed by the teacher
with participation of students. The students will maintain a record of these demonstration experiments.
1. To determine resistance per cm of a given wire by plotting a graph of potential difference
2. To find resistance of a given wire using metre bridge and hence determine the specific
resistance of its material.
3. To verify the laws of combination (series/parallel) of resistances using a metre bridge.
4. To compare the emf of two given primary cells using potentiometer.
5. To determine the internal resistance of given primary cell using potentiometer.
6. To determine resistance of a galvanometer by half-deflection method and to find its figure
7. To convert the given galvanometer (of known resistance and figure of merit) into an ammeter
and voltmeter of desired range and to verify the same.
8. To find the frequency of the a.c. mains with a sonometer.
1. To measure the resistance and impedance of an inductor with or without iron core.
2. To measure resistance, voltage (AC/DC), current (AC) and check continuity of a given
circuit using multimeter.
3. To assemble a household circuit comprising three bulbs, three (on/off) switches, a fuse
and a power source.
4. To assemble the components of a given electrical circuit.
5. To study the variation in potential drop with length of a wire for a steady current.
6. To draw the diagram of a given open circuit comprising at least a battery, resistor/rheostat,
key, ammeter and voltmeter. Mark the components that are not connected in proper
order and correct the circuit and also the circuit diagram.
1. To find the value of v for different values of u in case of a concave mirror and to find the
2. To find the focal length of a convex lens by plotting graphs between u and v or between l/
u and l/v.
3. To find the focal length of a convex mirror, using a convex lens.
4. To find the focal length of a concave lens, using a convex lens.
5. To determine angle of minimum deviation for a given prism by plotting a graph between
angle of incidence and angle of deviation.
6. To determine refractive index of a glass slab using a travelling microscope.
7. To find refractive index of a liquid by using a convex lens and plane mirror.
8. To draw the I-V characteristic curve of a p-n junction in forward bias and reverse bias.
9. To draw the characteristic curve of a zener diode and to determine its reverse break
10. To study the characteristics of a common - emitter npn or pnp transistor and to find out
the values of current and voltage gains.
Section : A
1. To study effect of intensity of light (by varying distance of the source) on an L.D.R.
2. To identify a diode, an LED, a transistor, and IC, a resistor and a capacitor from mixed
collection of such items.
3. Use of multimeter to (i) identify base of transistor. (ii) distinguish between npn and pnp
type transistors. (iii) see the unidirectional flow of current in case of a diode and an LED.
(iv) check whether a given electronic component (e.g. diode, transistor or I C) is in working
4. To observe refraction and lateral deviation of a beam of light incident obliquely on a glass
5. To observe polarization of light using two Polaroids.
6. To observe diffraction of light due to a thin slit.
7. To study the nature and size of the image formed by (i) convex lens (ii) concave mirror, on
a screen by using a candle and a screen (for different distances of the candle from the lens/
8. To obtain a lens combination with the specified focal length by using two lenses from the
given set of lenses.
Section : B
Evaluation Scheme for Practical Examination:
One experiment from any one section
Two activities (one from each section)
Practical record (experiments & activities)
Record of demonstration experiments & Viva based on these experiments
Viva on experiments & activities
SUGGESTED LIST OF DEMONSTRATION EXPERIMENTS
1 To demonstrate that there are two kinds of charges and that like charges repel and unlike charges
attract each other.
2 To demonstrate electrostatic shielding.
3. To demonstrate the effect on resistance of distilled water on adding sodium chloride.
4. To study the effect produced on the magnetic field pattern by bringing various materials in its
surrounding space of a bar magnet.
5. To study the factors that affect the strength of an electromagnet.
6. To demonstrate repulsion/attraction between two conductors carrying current in opposite/same
7. To demonstrate the production of induced emf in a coil due to the movement of (i) a magnet
towards and away from it.(ii) a similar coil carrying current towards and away from it.
8. To demonstrate the working of a simple AC generator.
9. To demonstrate the linear and angular range of a given remote.
10 To demonstrate (i) the principle of a transformer by winding primary and secondary on a steel
rod; and (ii) removal of eddy currents by using a laminated core.
11. To demonstrate the phenomenon of total internal reflection.
12. To demonstrate the phenomenon of interference / diffraction of light
13. To demonstrate the variation in focal length of a lens by changing medium of its surrounding.
14. To demonstrate the effect of intensity of light on LDR.
15. To demonstrate the working of logic Gates using torch bulb, battery and switches.
16. To demonstrate the universal nature of NAND / NOR Gate.