CBSE Board Geography Syllabus for Class 11

CBSE Board Syllabus for Class 11 Geography

Class XI

Part A. Fundamentals of Physical Geography .
Unit-1: Geography as a discipline 
Unit-2: The Earth 
Unit-3: Landforms 
Unit-4: Climate 
Unit-5: Water (Oceans) 
Unit-6: Life on the Earth 
Unit-7: Map work 

Part B. India- Physical Environment 
Unit-8: Introduction 
Unit-9: Physiography 
Unit-10: Climate, vegetation and soil 
Unit-11: Natural hazards and Disasters 
Unit-12: Map Work 

Part C. Practical Work 
Unit-1: Fundamentals of Maps 
Unit-2: Topographic and Weather Maps 
Unit-3 : Practical Record Book & Viva .

Part A. Fundamentals of Physical Geography .
Unit-1: Geography as a Discipline 
Geography as an integrating discipline, as a science
of spatial attributes;
Branches of geography; importance of physical geography.

Unit-2: The Earth 
 Origin and evolution of the earth; Interior of the earth;
 Wegener’s continental drift theory and plate tectonics;
 Earthquakes and volcanoes.

Unit-3: Landforms 
 Rocks: major types of rocks and their characteristics;
 Landforms and their evolution
 Geomorphic processes:weathering, mass wasting, erosion and deposition; soil-formation

Unit 4: Climate 
 Atmosphere- composition and structure; elements of weather and climate.
 Insolation-angle of incidence and distribution; heat budget of the earth-heating and cooling
of atmosphere (conduction, convection, terrestrial radiation and advection); temperaturefactors controlling temperature; distribution of temperature-horizontal and vertical; inversion
of temperature.
 Pressure-pressure belts; winds-planetary, seasonal and local; air masses and fronts; tropical
and extratropical cyclones.
 Precipitation-evaporation; condensation-dew, frost, fog, mist and cloud; rainfall-types
and world distribution.
 World climates-classification (Koeppen and Thornthwaite), greenhouse effect, global
warming and climatic changes.

Unit 5: Water   Hydrological Cycle.
Oceans - distribution of temperature and salinity; movements of ocean water-waves,
tides and currents; submarine reliefs.

Unit 6: Life on the Earth 
 Biosphere - importance of plants and other organisms; biodiversity and conservation;
ecosystem and ecological balance.

Unit 7: Map work on identification of features based on the above units on
the outline political map of the world.

Part B. India - Physical Environment .
Unit 8: Introduction 
 Location-space relations and India’s place in the world.

Unit 9: Physiography 
 Structure and Relief;
 Drainage systems: concept of watershed; the Himalayan and the Peninsular;
 Physiographic divisions.

Unit 10: Climate, Vegetation and Soil
 Weather and climate — spatial and temporal distribution of temperature, pressure winds
and rainfall, Indian monsoon: mechanism, onset and withdrawal, variability of rainfalls :
spatial and temporal; Climatic types .
 Natural vegetation-forest types and distribution; wild life; conservation; biosphere reserves;
 Soils - major types (ICAR’s classification) and their distribution, soil degradation and

Unit 11: Natural Hazards and Disasters: Causes, Consequences and
Management (One case study to be introduced for each topic)
 Floods, Clouds bursts and droughts
 Earthquakes and Tsunami

Unit 12: Map Work of features based on above units for locating and
labelling on the Outline Political map of India.

C. Practical Work 
Unit 1: Fundamentals of Maps 
 Maps -types; scales-types; construction of simple linear scale, measuring distance; finding
direction and use of symbols.
 Latitude, longitude and time.
 Map projection- typology, construction and properties of projection : Conical with one
standard parallel and Mercator’s projection.

Unit 2: Topographic and Weather Maps 
 Study of topographic maps (1 : 50,000 or 1 : 25,000 Survey of India maps); contour
cross section and identification of landforms-slopes, hills, valleys, waterfall, cliffs; distribution
of settlements.
 Aerial Photographs: Types & Geometry-vertical aerial photographs; difference between
maps & aerial photographs; photo scale determination.
 Satellite imageries, stages in remote sensing data-acquisition, platform & sensors and
data products, (photographic & digital).
 Identification of physical & cultural features from aerial photographs & satellite imageries.
 Use of weather instruments: thermometer, wet and dry-bulb thermometer, barometer,
wind vane, raingauge.
 Use of weather charts: describing pressure, wind and rainfall distribution.
Unit 3: Practical Record Book and Vivavoce.