Andhra Pradesh Board Science Syllabus for Class 10

Andhra Pradesh Board Syllabus for Class 10 Science

Course Structure
Sub. - Science
Class- 10th

Unit 1 Rate of Chemical reaction, Chemical equilibrium and important chemical compounds.
Unit 2 Light
Unit 3 Electricity
Unit 4 Sources of Energy
Unit 5 Life processes, Digestion and respiration
Unit 6 Transportation, Excretion
Unit 7 Reproduction, growth, Heridity and evolution
Unit 8 Metals and Non- metals
Unit 9 Carbon Compounds
Unit 10 Environment and environmenal problems Classification of medicinal plants
Unit 11 The Universe - Broad Environment

Rate of Chemical reaction, chemical equilibrium and some important chemical compounds :- Chemical reactions and some important chemical compounds. Rate of chemical and Chemical equilibrium :- Elementary idea of rate of
chemical reaction, slow and fast chemical reactions; reversible and irreversible reactions, chemical equilibrium dynamic nature only. Acids and Bases. pH scale, Thermal changes in chemical reaction. Some important chemical compounds :- Method of preparation / manufacture (only outline), Properties and using of washing soda, baking soda, bleaching
powder and plaster of paris. Manufacture of some important building materials lime, cement, Glass and steel.

Unit.2. Light :
Nature of light : - Reflection of light, Laws of reflection, Reflection from plane and spherical surface, plane mirror, convex and concave mirror, sign conversions, Derivation of formula of mirror, magnification. Refraction of Light :- Laws of refraction, Refraction through a rectangular slab; concave and convex lens and image formation by them, Lens formula (Simple
derivation), Sign conversation, Power of a lens. Some optical phenomena in nature/ Twinkling of stars, mirages, Defects of vision and their correction. Optical instruments :- Structure and working of a compound microscope and an
Astronomical telescope. Dispersion :- Dispersion of white light by a glass prism, composition of white light, colour of objects and pigments, superposition of primary colours of light.

Unit.3. Electricity
Electricity and its effects :- Potential and Potential difference, electrical current, ohm's law, Electric resistance, combination of electric resistance in series and parallel, Thermal effect of electricity and its uses. Power, Commercial unit of
electrical energy. Chemical effects of electric Current :- Electrolysis, Laws of faraday. (Excluding equation). Electroplating, Electro chemical cell, Dry cell. Magnetic effect of Electric Current :- Magnetic field due to flow of electric current in straight coil, solenoid (qualitative knowledge), Electromagnetic induction; Electric motor and Generator (D.C.) Direct and alternative current (qualitative idea) Domestic electric circuits, Safety measures in using the electricity.

Unit.4. Source of Energy :-
Renewable and Non-renewable sources, Renewable sources : Solar energy (Solar Cooker, Solar water heater, Solar Cell); Wind energy, Hydro energy (Tides of Ocean, Hydroelectric), Geothermal wood, Biogas, Hydrogen and Alcohol.
Non renewable source :- Fossil fuel (Coal, Petroleum and Natural gas). Conditions for Combustion choice of
a good Fuel, Fuel efficiency, nuclear fusion and nuclear fission, chain reaction, Nuclear reactor (Basic principles; Safety measures). Advantages and hazards of nuclear energy, uses of energy. Mangal Turbine (Fuel less turbine). Principle,
working and uses.

Unit.5. Living world :-
Life Processes :-
Nutrition, Modes of nutrition : Autotrophic, heterotruphic, Parasitic and saprophytis. Nutrition of plants : - Photosynthesis factors affecting the photosynthesis: Nutrition in animals : Ameba grasshopper, digestive system of human. Respiration :- Respiration and Breathing Respiration in Plants and animals type of respiration : Aerobic and anerobic respiration; Respiration through Skin, gills, trachea lungs. (Earthworm, Fishes, Grasshopper and Human). Knowledge of structure and function of respiratory system of human.

Unit.6. Transportation, Excretion
Transportation :- Transportation in Plants and animals. (Water, minerals, food). Transportation in Human, Composition and function of blood, Clotting of blood, Blood Groups. Transfusion of blood, Heart, structure and functions of blood vessel(elementary knowledge). Lymphatic system. Excret on :- Excretion in animals (Amoeba and earth worm), excretion in Human, Osmoregulation. Control and co-ordination :- Coordination, Plants and animals. Nervous system and hormones in Human. Reflex action.

Unit.7. Reproduction, growth, Heredity and Evolution
Reproduction and growth :- Types of Reproduction
Asexual : Fission budding, regeneration vegetative propagation in plants, cutting, grafting and layering, Pathenogenesis. Sexual reproduction and it significance Reproductive parts of plants, pollination and fertilization. Human reproductivesystem, Mental and physical change during human development. Heredity and Evolution :- Heredity and Variations, Physical basis of Heredity - chromosomes; D.N.A. (elementary knowledge), Genes, Sex determination. Elementary knowledge of

Unit.8. Natural Resources
Metals and non-metals :- Ores and minerals, metallurgy, Enrichment of ores, extraction of metal from ores, refinement and purification of metal with reference to Iron and aluminium, Activity series of metals, general properties and corrosion
of metals, Alloys, Components, properties and uses of steel; stainless steel, Brass, magnelium. Alloys of gold.
Non-metals :- Importance and general. Properties, method of preparation of hydrogen, properties and its uses. Manufacturing of ammonia (Only reactions). its properties and uses, sulphur - occurrence, extraction, properties (allotropy and effect of heat) and uses. Properties and used of Sulphur dioxide. Manufacture of sulphuric acid (Only reactions), it properties and uses.

Unit.9. Carbon Compounds
Functional groups (only oxygen containing) Alcohols - preparation, properties and uses, preparation methods, properties and uses of formaldehyde, Acetone and Acetic acid. Some common synthetic polymers, soaps and detergents.

Unit.10. Environment
Environment and Environmental Problems :- Causes, prevention and control of environmental problems, Land, water, Air, noise pollution and accumulation of waste materials. Biodegradable and Non biodegradable materials, Interaction,
between biotic and non biotic component of ecosystem. Ecological balance, efforts and measures
for conservation of environment. 
Process of water management and conservation :- Rain water harvesting Ground
water recharging, conservation of forests; Land management and conservation Public awareness for environmental protection, Green House effect, Global warming, ozone layer depletion, Acid rain. Morhological study of medicinal plants. Their classification on the basis of their use and life span. Study of botanical names and medicinal use of the following plants.Seasonal plants Malkangni, Ashwaganda, Ginger, Turmeric, Garlic, Fenugreek, Touch-
me- not, Soya, Shatawar, Sarpgandha, Isabgol, Dioscorea, Mustard, Cumin, Fennel, Ajwayin, Marua, Tulsi, Vacha, Adusa, Giloy, Harjor, Bryophytum, Bhui Aonla, Castor. Trees and pernnial plants Harad, Baheda, Aonla, Nirgundi, Babool, Oak, Neem,
Sheesham, Catechu, Karanj, Sweet Neem, Molshree, Kachnar, Peepal, Harshinagar, Amaltash, Pomegranate, Sandal, Nuxvom, Paras peepal, Arjuna, Eucalyptus, Bel, Apamargh, Bhringraj, Kaner.

Unit.11. The Universe
Solar system and exploring space - Exploring space - Solar System, plants,asteroids, comets and meteors; Earth origin, evolution and structure stars, Constellations, milky way, galaxy, structure of universe and its theories. Brief history of space explorations :- Elementary ideas about space crafts Different types of artificial satellites and their orbits. Uses of artificial satellites in Communication, weather forecasting, remote sensing and space exploration.

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