# Andhra Pradesh Board Physics Syllabus for Class 12

## Andhra Pradesh Board Syllabus for Class 12 Physics

PHYSICS

I. SOUND: (12 Periods)
Characteristics of a sound note – Formation of stationary waves in stretched strings – Laws of
vibrating strings – Experimental verifica-tion by Sonometer – Beats – Definition and explanation –
Doppler Effect – Derivation of formula for apparent frequency in specific cases – Applications and
limitations of Doppler Effect – Echoes – Absorp-tion of sound waves – Reverberations –
Fundamentals of Building acoustics – Statement of Sabine’s formula (Qualitative treatment only)

II. RAY OPTICS AND OPTICAL INSTRUMENTS: (15 Periods)
Nature of light – Newton’s corpuscular theory – Huygen’s wave theory – Electromagnetic wave
theory, Properties of Electro-magnetic waves – Quantum theory (Elementary ideas only) ––
Critical angle – Total internal reflection – Application to Optical fibres. Len’s Maker’s for-mula
1/f = (µ - 1) (1/R 1 + 1/R 2 ) (expression only) – Defects of images – Spherical and Chromatic
aberrations and their elimination (Qualita-tive treatment) – Construction of Ramsden’s and
Huygen’s eyepieces. Dispersion of light – Dispersive Power – Pure and impure spectra –
Conditions for obtaining pure spectrum. Different kinds of spectra – Emission spectra-line, band
and continu-ous spectra; Absorption spectra – Their significance; Fraunhofer lines
and their significance.

III. PHYSICAL OPTICS: (8 Periods)
Interference – Coherent sources – young’s double slit experiment – Applications – Diffraction –
phenomenon of diffraction – Fresnel and Fraunhofer Diffraction – Applications - Polarisation –
concepts of polarisation – production of plane polarised light by reflection, refrac-tion
and double refraction (Polaroids).

IV. MAGNETISM: (10 Periods)
Coulomb’s inverse square law – Couple acting on a bar magnet placed in a uniform magnetic
field – Magnetic moment of a magnet – Ex-pression for Magnetic induction due to a bar magnet
on axial and Equatorial lines – Superposition of magnetic fields – Tangent law –
Deflection Magnetometer – Comparison of magnetic moments in Tan-A and Tan-B positions by
Equal distance method and null method – Verification of Inverse square law; vibration
Magnetometer – Experi-mental determination of M and H.

V. ELECTROSTATICS: (12 Periods)
Coulomb’s Law – Permittivity – concept of electric field – Electric lines of force – Force on a
charge in an electric field (F=Eq) – Electric potential – Potential due to point charge – potential
energy of a point charge in a uniform electric field – electron volt – relation between E and V
(E=V/d). Capacitance – Dielectric constant – Parallel plate capacitor – men-tion of formula for
capacitance – di-electric materials (Elementary treatment) - effect of di-electric on capacity
(Expressions only) – derivation of formulae for resultant capacitance, when capacitors are
connected in series and parallel – Energy stored in a capacitor – effect of di-electric on the
energy – types of capacitors and their uses.

VI. CURRENT ELECTRICITY: (10 Periods)
Ohm’s Law – Ohmic and non-ohmic resistances – specific resistance – conductance –
temperature dependence of resistivity – thermistor – emf of a cell – internal resistance and back
e.m.f. Kirchoff’s laws – statement and explanation – application to wheatstone’s bridge for its
balance conditions – metre bridge – prin-ciple of potentiometer – Comparison of e.m.f. of cell –
determination of internal resistance of a primary cell - Series and parallel combi-nation
of cells.

VII. THERMOELECTRICITY: (5 Periods)

Seebeck effect – peltier and Thomson effects and their coefficients – variation of thermo e.m.f.
with temperature – Neutral and inversion temperatures – application of thermo couples.

VIII. ELECTROMAGNITICS: (20 Periods)
Oersted’s experiment – Biot-Savart law – Ampere law – magnetic field near a long straight wire
and at the centre of a circular coil carry-ing current (expressions only) – Tangent galvanometer
principle and working – force on a moving charge in a magnetic field – f=(q.VxB) – force on a
current carrying conductor in a magnetic field – force between two straight parallel conductors
carrying current – definition of ampere – Fleming’s left hand rule-force and torque on current loop
in a magnetic field – construction and working of a moving coil galva-nometer – shunt and its
uses – conversion of moving coil galvanom-eter into ammeter and voltmeter – Comparison of
MCG with T.G. Electromagnetic induction – Magnetic flux and induced emf-Faraday and lenz’s
laws – Fleming’s right hand rule – self and mutual induc-tance – Henry – Principle of transformer
(Elementary ideas). a.c. current circuits – Introduction – Instantaneous, maximum and r-m-
s values of a.c current – growth and decay of current in an inductor – growth and decay of charge
in a capacitor – A.C. Circuits – L.C, C.R. and L.C.R. circuits.

IX. ATOMIC PHYSICS: (10 Periods)
Discovery of electron-e/m of electron by Thomson’s method – charge of an electron by Millikan’s
oil drop method (Principle only). Photoelectric effect-laws of photo electric emission – Einstein’s
Pho-toelectric equation and its experimental verification by Millikan’s method – photo electric cells
and their uses. X-ray spectra – Mosley’s law and its importance – Compton effect –dual nature of
matter – DeBroglie’s hypothesis (concepts only)

X. NUCLEAR PHYSICS: (10 Periods)
Composition of nucleus – nuclear forces – mass defect and binding energy (Explanations with
examples) – artificial transmutation of ele-ments – Discovery of neutron – nuclear fission – chain
reaction – Principle and working of a nuclear reactor – Radio-Isotopes and their uses – Nuclear
radiation hazards – Protective shielding – Nuclear fusion – energy of the sun and the stars
(Carbon – Nitrogen cycle and Proton – Proton cycle) – elementary particles.

XI. SEMI-CONDUCTOR DEVICES: (8 Periods)
Junction diode – depletion layer – barrier potential – forward and re-verse bias – current – voltage
characteristics – junction diode as half wave and full wave rectifiers – Zener diode as Voltage
regulator. Transistors pnp and npn transistors – Transistor characteristics - Tran-sistor amplifier
(common emitter).

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