Andhra Pradesh Board Geography Syllabus for Class 11

Andhra Pradesh Board Syllabus for Class 11 Geography

CLASS - 11th

Part - (A) Fundamentals of Physcial Geography :

Unit I.
Geography as a discipline : An interoduction.

1. Geography as an integrating discipline. As a science of special
2. Meaning, Scope, branches, importance and relationship with other

Unit II. The Earth.

1. Origin and evolution of earth.
2. Formation of interior and exterior of earth.
3. Wegener's continental drift theory and plate tectonics.
4. Earth quakes and volcanoes.

Unit III. Land forms formation.

1. Rocks and minerals- types and characteristics.
2. Internal geomorphic process, land forms.
3. External geomorphic process, land forms made from erosion, trans-
portation and deposition by under ground water, glaciers, winds and
water, soil formation.

Unit IV. Climate.

1. Atmosphere - composition and structure.
2. Insolation and temperature - Distribution, horizontal and vertical,
factors controling them, heating and cooling of atmosphere;
conduction, convention and terrestrial radiation.
3. Atmospheric pressure-winds-belts, planetary - season and local,
airnmoses and fronts.
4. Precipitation - evoparation, condensation - dew, frost, fog, mist
and cloud.
rain fall- types and world distribution.
5. World Climates - Classification, green house effect, global
warming and climatic changes.

Unit V. Hydrosphere (Water).

1. Hydrological cycle.
2. Distribution of water reservoires on earth surface.
3. Submarine relief.
4. Temperature distribution of oceans -horizontal and verticle.
5. Salinity - distribution and factors affecting it.
6. Movement of ocean water - waves, tides and currents.
7. Oceanic fauna and flora.
8. Effects of oceans on the human life.

Unit VI. Life on the Earth - Biosphere.

1. Importance of plants and other organisms.
2. Biodiversity.
3. Ecosystem; energy flow, ecological balance.
4. Effect of human activities on ecology.
5. Deterioration of resources and environmental pollution.
6. Bio- geo- chemical cycle.

Part - (B)
India - Physical Environment :

Unit - VII. Physiography :

Introduction - location and extent, space relations and india's place in the
(ii) Geological structures and relief features, physical divisions.
(iii) Drainage systems - concept of water sheds and drainge systems Himalayen
and the peninsuler.

Unit - VIII. Climate :

Weather and climate - special and temporal distribution of
temperture, pressure, winds and rain fall.
(ii) Mechanism of monsoon, on set and withdrawal, seasons,
(iii) Climatic divisions.
(iv) Elements affecting Indian climate.
(v) Effects of climate on human life.

Unit - IX. Natural Vegetation and Soils :

Importance of natural vegetation.
(ii) Types of forests and their distribution.
(iii) Deforestation.
(iv) Measures of conser vation.
(v) Effects of human activites on vegetation.
Wild Life - Importance and conservation national parks &
centuaries, bio -sphere reserves.
Soil - Meaning, formation, importance.
types and characteristics, distribution,
Causes of degradation, measures of conservation and

Unit - X. Natural Hazards and Disartars :
Causes, Consequences and Management.
(ii) Floods and draughts.

(iii) Earth quakes and Sunami.
(iv) Cyclones.
(v) Land slides.
(vi) Management of hazards and disasters.
(One case study to be introduced for each topic)

part - (c) Practical Geography

Unit XI.Fundamentals of maps:

Maps - Types, uses and importance of maps, finding directions
and use of symbols and colours in topographic and weathermaps.
Lattitude, longitude and time.
Scale - Types and their use.
Map projection - Typology, construction and properties of conical (with one
standard parallel), polar equidistant and Mereator's projection.
Topographic and weather maps.
Different method of showing relief :

Contours, cross - sections, and identification of land forms - slopes, hills, valleys,
water falls, cliffs, distribution of settlements.
Use of weather instruments: Thermometer, wet and dry bulb thermometer,
barometar ,windvane, rainguage.
Use of weather charts; describing pressure, wind and rainfall distribution.
Aerial photographs and satellite images.
Aerial photographs - Types and geometry - vertical aerial photographs. difference
between maps and aerial photographs. photo scale determination
Satellite images - stages in remote sensing, data acquisition, platform and sensors
and data products. (photographic and digilal)
Inter pretation of physical and cultural features from acrial photographs and satellite

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