Andhra Pradesh Board Economics Syllabus for Class 12


Andhra Pradesh Board Syllabus for Class 12 Economics

ECONOMICS
Class - XII
PAPER-II-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF INDIA


UNIT-I: DEVELOPMENT-CONCEPT AND FEATURES        17 Periods
Meaning of development and growth – Main features of de-veloped and developing economies – Determinants of eco-nomic development – India as a developing economy. Ref: Meir : Issues in Development, Oxford.


UNIT-II: MARKET ECONOMY AND DEVELOPMENT            25 Periods
Concept and basic features of Market Economy – Inter-de-pendence of State and the Markets – Liberalization, Global-ization and Privatization, the Pre-requisits for Promoting Glo-bal Market – Global Market, Trade and Development – Origin of international Trading arrangements and basic features of GATT negotiations – Establishment of WTO and its salient features – WTO and the Indian Economy.


UNIT-III: GROWTH OF POPULATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF HUMAN RESOURCES        16 Periods
Growth of population and occupational distribution of popula-tion – Birth and death rates – Population policy Amartya Sen’s concept of capability as related to human resources development – Role of Education and Health – Magnitude of Univer-sal education, Female education and health care systems. Ref: Dutt & K.P.M.Sundaram – Indian Economy 1998 Amartya Sen – Economic Development of India 1996.


UNIT-IV: NATIONAL INCOME, INEQUALITIES IN THE DISTRIBUTION OF INCOME – UNEMPLOYMENT AND POVERTY IN INDIA         30 Periods
Trends in the growth of National Income and percapita In-come since Independence – Changes in the sectoral contribution of National Income – Shares of Public and Private sectors in National Income – Inequalities in the distribution of Income and Wealth – Fac-tors influencing Inequalities in the distribution of Income – Measures to control inequalities – Meaning, Causes and es-timates of Unemployment – Concept of Poverty – Poverty line – Rural and Urban Pov erty – Causes of Poverty – Anti poverty measures.


UNIT-V: AGRICULTURE               35 Periods
The place of agriculture in Indian economy-Causes for low Agricultural productivity-Measures to increase productivity- Causes for and conse-quences of small Agricultural holdings – Consolidation of holdings – The need for land reforms – Salient features of land reforms – Cooperative farming-Existing pattern of land utilisation- Estimates of irrigated area-Green revolution- Changes in cropping pat-tern – Nature and sources of Agricultural credit – Causes for rural indebtedness – Remedial measures – Re organization of rural credit and role of NABARD Agricultural Marketing , Defects in Agricultural Marketing in India. –Remedial Mea-sures
– The present position of agricultural labour in India.
         1. Mishra & Puri-Indian Economy
         2. C.B.Mamoria-Indian Agriculture.


UNIT-VI: INDUSTRY                   25 Periods
The role of industrialisation – Pattern of industrialisation af-ter liberalisation- A brief outline of the growth of large scale industries – Cottage and small scale industries – Their im-portance, problems and remedial measures – Industrial es-tates – Short term and long term institutions of industrial finance – Industrial policy resolutions of 1948,1956 and 1991- The present position of Industrial Labour.
          1. R.Dutt & K.P.M.Sundaram – Indian Economy
          2. Battwal: Industrial Economy.


UNIT-VII: TERTIARY SECTOR               13 Periods
Importance of Tertiary sector in economic development in-creasing role of transport, banking and insurance-Infrastructural development.
          1. R.Dutt & K.P.M.Sundaram – Indian Economy
          2. World Development Report on Infrastructure


UNIT-VIII: PLANNING IN INDIA              13 Periods
A brief review of the achievements of various Five Year Plans – Objectives of 9 th Five Year Plan – Causes and consequences of Regional inbalance – Measures to achieve balanced re-gional development.
           1. R.Dutt & K.P.M.Sundaram – Indian Economy.


UNIT-IX: ENVIRONMENT AND DEVELOPMENT             16 Periods
Concepts of Environment, Ecology, Eco-system, Stability of Eco-system and Pollution – Sources of Pollution: Air, Water, Soil and Sound – Resource exhaustation and Pollution, the basic causes of Environmental degradation – Effects of Envi -ronmental Degradation and the need for preserving the envi -ronment – Environment and Economic growth – Concept of sustainable development.

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