Andhra Pradesh Board Chemistry Syllabus for Class 11
Andhra Pradesh Board Syllabus for Class 11 Chemistry
Unit 1 History of chemistry and some basic concepts :
History of chemistry : General introduction History of Chemistry in light of Indian
Scenerio, importance and scope of chemistry, Historical approach to particulate nature
of matter (ancient concept).
some basic concepts : laws of chemical combination, Dalton's atomic theroy; concept
of elements, atoms and molecules.
Atomic and molecular masses, Mole concept and molar mass; percentage composition,
empirical and molecular formulae; chemical reactions, stoichiometry and calculations based
Unit 2 Structure of Atom :
Discovery of electron, Proton and Neutron; atomic number, isotops and isobars.
Thompson's model and its limitations, Rutherford's model and its limitations, hydrogen
spectrum, Bohr's model and its limitations, modern concept of atomic structure, concept
of shells and subshells, dual nature of matter and light, de Broglie's relationship, Heisenberg
uncertainty principle, concept of orbitals, quantum numbers, shapes of s, p and d orbitals,
rules for filling electrons in orbitals - Aufbau principle, Pauli's exclusion principle and
Hund's rule, electronic configuration of atoms, stability of half filled and completely filled
Unit 3 Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Properties :
Significance of classification, brief history of the development of periodic
table, modern periodic law and the present form of periodic table,
periodic trends in properties of elements - atomic radii, ionic radii, inert gas
radii, ionisation enthalpy, electron gain enthalpy, electronegativity, valency.
4.Chemical bonding and molecular structure-
Valence electrons, ionic bond, covalent bond and co-ordinate bond, bond
parameters, Lewis structure, polar character of covalent bond, covalent
character of ionic bond, Born-Haber cycle, valence bond theory, resonance,
geometry of covalent molecules, VSEPR theory, concept of hybridization
involving s, p and d orbitals and shapes of some simple molecules, molecular
orbital theory of homonuclear diatomic molecules (qualitative idea only).
5.States of Matter (gases and liquids)
Three states of matter, Intermolecular interactions, types of bonding, melting
and boiling points, Role of gas laws in elucidating the concept of the molecule,
Boyle's law, Charle's law, Gay Lussac's law, Avogadro's law, Ideal
behaviour of gases, Avogadro's number, kinetic theory of gases, Ideal gas
equation, Deviation from ideal behaviour, liquifaction of gases, critical
Liquid State - Vapour pressure, viscosity and surface tension (qualitative
idea only, no mathematical derivations)
Thermodynamics and chemical energetics:
Reversible and irreversible processes, concept of system, types of
systems,surrounding, work, heat, energy, extensive and itensive properties,
First law of thermodynamics - internal energy and enthalpy, heat capacity and
specific heat, measurement of ∆ U and ∆ H, Hess's law of constant heat
summation, enthalpy of : bond dissociation, combustion, formation, atomization,
sublimation, phase transition, ionization and dilution.
Introduction of entropy as a state function, free energy change for spontaneous
and non-spontaneous processes.
unit 7.Chemical Equilibrium
I - Equilibrium in physical and chemical processes, Dynamic nature of
equilibrium, Law of mass action, equilibrium constant, kP and kC , factors
affecting equilibrium - Le Chatelier's principle;
II - Ionic equilibrium - ionization of acids and bases, strong and weak
electrolytes, degree of ionization, concept of pH, hydrolysis of salts (elementary
idea), buffer solutions, solubility product, common ion effect (with illustrative
I - Oxidation - Reduction Reactions
Concept of oxidation and reduction, redox reactions, oxidation number,
balancing redox reactions, applications of redox reactions.
II - Principles of metallurgical operations
Modes of occurance, concentration of ores, chemical principles underlying
extraction and Refining.
Unit 9 Hydrogen
Position of hydrogen in periodic table, occurrence. isotopes, preparation,
properties and uses of hydrogen; hydrides - ionic, covalent and interstitial;
physical and chemical properties of water, heavy water; hydrogen peroxide-
preparation, reactions and structure; representing strength, or concertration
hydrogen as a fuel.
Unit10 S-Block Elements (Group I and Group II elements)
General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, anomalous
properties of the first element of each group, diagonal relationship, trends in
the variation of properties (such as ionization enthalpy, atomic and ionic
radii), trends in chemical reactivity with oxygen, water, hydrogen and
halogens; reaction with ammonia, uses.
Preparation and properties of some important compounds:
Sodium carbonate, sodium hydroxide and sodium hydrogen carbonate,
(Sodium bi carbonate) biological importance of sodium and potassium.
CaO, CaCO3 and industrial use of lime, limestone and plaster of paris,
biological importance of Mg and Ca.
Unit11 Some p-Block Elements, I (Group 13 elements)
General introduction, electronic configuration, occurence, variation of
properties, oxidation states, trends in chemical reactivity, anomalous
properties of first element of the group; Boron - physical and chemical
properties, some important compounds; borax, boric acid, boron hydrides,
Aluminium; reactions with acids and alkalies, uses, Alum.
Unit12 Some p-Block elements, II (Group 14 elements)
General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, variation of
properties, oxidation states, trends in chemical reactivity, anomalous
behaviour of first element, Carbon - catenation, allotropic forms, physical
and chemical properties; uses of some important compunds: oxides.
Important compunds of silicon and a few uses, silicon tetrachloride, silicones,
silicates and zeolites.
Unit13 Organic Chemistry- Some Basic Principles and Techniques
General introducion, methods of purification, qualitative and quantitative
analysis. Tetra valency of carbon, classification and IUPAC nomenclature of
organic compounds. structural isomerism.
Electronic displacements in a covalent bond: Inductive effect, electromeric
effect, resonance and hyper conjugation .
Homolytic and heterolytic fission of a covalent bond: free radicals,
carbocations, carboanions; electrophiles and nucleophiles, types of organic
Classification of hydrocarbons
Alkanes - Nomenclature, isomerism, conformations (In reference to ethane).
physical properties, chemical reactions including free radicals, mechanism of
halogenation, combustion and pyrolysis.
Alkenes - Nomenclature, structure of double bond (ethene), geometrical
isomerism, physical properties, methods of preparation, chemical reactions:
addition of hydrogen, halogen, water, hydrogen halides ( Markonikoffs
addition rule and peroxide effect), ozonolysis, oxidation, mechanism of
Alkynes - Nomenclature, structure of triple bond (ethyne), physical
properties, methods of preparation, chemical reactions: acidic character of
alkynes, addition reaction of hydrogen, halogens, hydrogen halides and water.
Aromatic hydrocarbons - Introduction, IUPAC nomenclature: Benzene:
resonance, aromaticity: chemical properties: mechanism of electrophilic
substitution - nitration, suphonation, halogenation, Friedel Craft's alkylation
and acylation; directive infuence of functional group in mono- subsitituted
benzene; carcinogenicity and toxicity.
Unit15 Environmental Chemistry
Environmental pollution - air, water and soil pollution, chemical reactions in
atomosphere, smog, major atmospheric pollutants; acid rain, ozone and its
reactions, effects of depletion of ozone layer, greenhouse effect and global
warming- pollution due to industrial wastes; green chemistry as an alternative
tool for reducing pollution, strategy for control of environmental pollution.
Importance of medicianal plants in pollution control and its medicinal use.
Classification - Natural and synthetic, methods of polymerisation (addition
and condensation), co-polymerisation, some important polymers (Natural
and synthetic) like polythene, nylon, polyester, bakelite, rubber & its
vulcanisation, PVC, Teflon.
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