Andhra Pradesh Board Business Studies Syllabus for Class 12
Andhra Pradesh Board Syllabus for Class 12 Business Studies
Unit 1. Management: Nature and Significance:-
Management - Meaning, objectives and importance;Nature of Management- as a
science, Art and Profession; Levels of Management- Top, Middle and Supervisory;
Management Functions- planning, organising, staffing, directing and controlling; Co-
ordination-nature and importance.
Unit 2. Principles of Management:-
Management Theories- Meaning, nature and significance, Fayol's principles of general
Management; Taylor's Scientific Management-principles and techniques.
Unit 3. Business Environment:-
Business Environment- Meaning and importance; Dimensions of Business
Environment - Political, Economic, Social, Tchnological and Legal.
Economic Environment in India, Impact of Government Policy changes in business and
industry with special references to liberalization, privatization and globalization (Since
1991); Managerial response to changes in business environment.
Meaning, Features and importance; Goals, Strategies, Objectives, Policies, Procedures,
Methods, Rules, Budget and Programmes- Meaning and distinction; Planning Process;
Limitations of Planning.
Meaning and importance; Steps in the process of organizing; Structure of Organizaton-
Functional and divisional, formal and informal organizations; Delegation- Meaning,
importance and elements; Decentralization - meaning and importance Difference
between delegation and decentralization.
Meaning, need and importance; Staffing as a part of human resource management; Steps
in staffing process; Recruitment- meaning and sources; Selection- Meaning and process;
Training and Development - meaning, need and distinction; Methods-Job rotations,
apprenticeship, vestibule, internship;
Unit 7. Directing:
Meaning, principles and Importance; Elements of Direction- (a) Supervision - meaning
and importance; (b) Motivation- meaning, need and importance; Financial and non - financial
incentives (c) Leadership- meaning, importance and qualities of a good leader. (d)
Communication - meaning and importance, formal and informal communication, Barriers
of effective communication.
Meaning, techniques and importance; Steps in the process of control; Relationship
between planning and controlling.
Financial Management- Meaning, objectives and finance function; Financial Planning-
Meaning and importance; Capital Structure - Meaning and factors; Fixed andWorking
Capital- Meaning and determinant factors;
Unit 10. Capital Market
Meaning and nature- primary and secondary market; Money market, Distinction between
Capital market and money market; Stock Exchange- Meaning, functions and trading
procedure; SEBI - Objectives and functions.
Meaning and objectives; Distinction between marketing and selling; Marketing
function; Marketing Mix- Meaning and elements :-
(1). Product- Product mix, branding, levelling and packaging.
(2). Pricing Strategies.
(3). Place- Physical distribution and channels of distribution; factors determining choice
of channels; Sales Promotion:- Meaning and methods, Advertising - features,
media, choice of media, effect of media; Personal selling- features; Public Relations -
Unit 12. Business Correspondence:
Business letters- (A) Meaning, essentials of a good business letter, Format and
Parts. (B) Enquiry, Quotation, Order, Reference, Complaint and Dunning letters.
Unit 13. Consumer Protection:
Improtance; Consumer rights and responsibilities; Ways and means of consumer protection.
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