Andhra Pradesh Board Botany Syllabus for Class 12
Andhra Pradesh Board Syllabus for Class 12 Botany
UNIT-I PLANT KINGDOM : 22 Periods
Introduction and Classification of Plant Kingdom in brief. Study of the structure and life history of
the following forms.Spirogyra, Rhizopus, Funaria, Pteris and Cycas.
UNIT-II MICROBIOLOGY: 10 Periods
Introduction and importance of microbiology. Bacteria: Introduction, structure, nutrition,
reproduction and economic importance. Viruses: Introduction, structure of TMV and
Bacteriophage, multiplication, transmission, symptoms of plant viral diseases and
their control measures.
UNIT-III PLANT PATHOLOGY: 10 Periods
Introduction to plant pathology Symptoms, causative organism and control measures of the
1. Blast of paddy
2. Red rot of sugarcane
3. Grain (covered) smut of Sorghum
UNIT-IV PLANTS AND HUMAN WELFARE : 22 Periods
A. Crop improvement:
Aims of Crop improvement:
Methods of crop improvements: Definition, method, merits, limitations and achievements of
Introduction, Selection (Mass, pureline, clonal), Hybridization and Hybrid vigour (Heterosis);
Mutation (Spontaneous and induced) and Polyploidy (Euploidy and Aneuploidy) breeding and
their applications in Crop improvement.
Definition, Scope and application of Biotechnology. Genetic Engineering – Recombinant DNA
Technology. Gene Cloning, Transgenic plants, Single cell protein.
Tissue Culture: Process of tissue culture;
Anther and Embryo cultures; Applications of plant tissue culture.
Food value, Types of mushrooms, Method ofCultivation of white button mushroom.
UNIT-V PLANT PHYSIOLOGY : 36 Periods
A. SOIL AND WATER RELATIONS OF PLANTS:
i) Soil: Definition, soil profile and components of soil.
ii) Diffusion, Imbibition, Osmosis, Plasmolysis, water potential, Absorption of water.
iii) Ascent of Sap: Definition, Cohesion – Tension theory
iv) Transpiration: Definition and types of transpiration, structure of stomata, mechanism of
stomatal movement, factors, significance. Antitranspirants.
v) Mineral nutrition: Definition, List of macro and micronutrients, ion absorption (carrier concept
only), Bio – fertilizers.
i) Enzymes: Definition, Properties and nomenclature, major groups of Enzymes (hydrolases and
ii) Photosynthesis: Definition, photosynthetic pigments (chlorophylls, carotenoids and
phycobilins); Hills reaction, Emerson enhancement effect, PSI and PSII, Calvin cylce (C 3 – cycle)
Hatch and Slack pathway (C 4 – cycle); Factors influencing photosynthesis – Blackman’s law of
iii) Respiration: Types of respiration; Mechanism of aerobic respiration: Glycolysis, Krebs cycle,
Electron transport system: Mechanism of anaerobic respiration, Alcoholic fermentation;
Respiratory quotient (R.Q)
iv) Nitrogen metabolism: Introduction, Biological nitrogen fixation (Symbiotic, Non-symbiotic);
Biosynthesis of proteins (Genetic code, transcription and translation).
v) Plant growth regulators: Auxins, Gibberillins, Cytokinins, Abscisic acid and Ethylene and their
physiological functions and applications in agriculture and horticulture;
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