Andhra Pradesh Board Biology Syllabus for Class 12
Andhra Pradesh Board Syllabus for Class 12 Biology
1.1- Cell : Cell as a physiological unit, plant water relationship: Absorption and movement of
water (Diffusion, Osmosis, Plasmolysis, Permeability, Water potential and Imbibition)
Theories of water Conduction, Root pressure, transpiration- mechanism, Importance of
transpiration, Factors affecting the Rate of Transpiration and measuring equipments.
Mechanism of opening and closing of Stomata(potassium ion theory). Guttation - Definition
Mineral Nutrition : - Functions of minerals, essential major and minor elements,
Deficiency symptoms of elements in plants.
Translacation of solutes (translocation of solutes) Nitrogen metabolism with reference to
1.2- Photosynthesis: Importance, site of action (functional aspect of chlorophyll and its
structure) Photochemical and Biochemical reactions. Electron transport system,
Photophosphorylation (Cyclic and Non cyclic), C3 and C4 plants, Photorespiration,
factors affecting the rate of photorespiration, factors affecting the rate of photoynthesis,
Methods of Nutrition : Autotrophic, Hetrotrophic, Saprophytic, Parasitic, Simbiosis and
Insectivorous plants. Chemosynthesis.
1.3- Respiration : Importance, Mechanism of respiration-Glycolysis, Kreb's cycle, pentose
Phosphate Pathway, Storage of energy in the Cell, Anaerobic respiration, Respiratory
quotient, compensation point, Fermentation : Mechanism and importance.
Unit 2 -
Multicellularity : Animal Physiology
2.1 Nutrition : Importance of nutrition, mode of nutrition in animals. Food-components of
Food, Functions, Sources (In brief). Intra cellular and Extra cellular digestion :
Invertebrates (cockroach). Study the digestive system of human- Ingestion, Digestion,
Absoption, Assimilation and Egestion. Role of Hormones and Enzymes in digestion,
Mulnutrition, Under nurishment and Nutritional disorder.
2.2- Gaseous exchange in animals : Respiratory organs of Earthwom, Cockroach and
Human and its mechanism-Breathing and its regulation- Transport of gases by blood,
Common respiratory disorder- Pranayam of prevention and cure.
2.3- Circulation of body fluid : Open and close circulatory systems, study of Blood circulatory
system in Cockroach and Human. Structure of human heart and its pumping action. Pulmonary
and systemic Circulation. Heart pulptation and beat. Rhythemicity of heart. Lymphatic system
: Lymph and its Circulation Related disorder of circulatory system, Hypertention, Ethroma,
Arterioscleorosis, Angina, Identification of blood groups, ECG study of Pace Macker.
2.4- Excretion of Nitrogenous waste products :
Ammonotelism, Ureotelism and Urecotelism, Excretory system of man and cockroach.
Mechanism of urine formation in Human. Chemical constituents of urine. Role of Kidney
in osmoregulation. Kidney failure and dialysis kidney transplantation. Role of liver in human
2.5- Locomotion and movement : Non muscular and Muscular movement. Movement &
locomotion in Hydra Earthworm and Human.
2.6- Human skeletal system : Study of axial and appendicular bones. Functions and kinds of
girdle, Joints- Types and location in body. Disorder of bone and cartilage- Arthritis,
Osteoporesis, Importance of Exercise - Mechanism of contraction, Role of white and red
muscles in movement.
2.7- Nervous co-ordination : Study of nervous system in Cockroach and Human. Structure
and function of Brain and Spinal cord. Conduction of nerve impulse, Reflex action and its
mechanism, Disorders of nervous system- Role of Dhyan-yoga and Nervous Co-ordination.
Sense organs of Human - Structure and function and disorder of Eye, Ear, Nose and
Tongue and Skin.
2.8- Endocrine Glands in Human: - Location in body, secretion and functions of Hormones.
Hormonal imbalance and diseases caused by it. Role of hormone as massenger and regulation
of body activities. Importance (Role of Harmones in physiology) Feedback control. Inmune
System - Study of Immune system in Human, Disorders of Immune system.
Unit 3- Reproducction, growth and Development :
3.1- Methods of reproduction in flowering plant-Micro propagation and Vegetative propagation.
Sexual reproduction-Development of male and female gametophyte. Pollination- Types,
agencies and factors. Fertilization : Double fertilization and its importance. Incompatability,
Embryo development & Parthenogenisis.
3.2- Plant growth : Growth regulators (Phytohormons) - Functions of Auxins, Gibberellins,
Cytokinins, Ethylene, ABA hormons, Seed germination-Mechanism, types and factors
affecting germination. Essential conditions for germination. Role of growth regulators in seed
dormancy, Stress factor-Water and Salt. Plant growth movement - Common plant
movement, flowering movement, Photoperiodism and Vernalisation.
3.3- Reproduction in Animals: General account about Asexual reproduction. Male and female
reproductive systems in Human. Structure and function of reproductive organs. Reproductive
cycle in female, Gametogenesis. Sturucture of Sperm and Ovum. Fertilization- physical
and chemical events: development of zygote (upto the formation of three germinal layers in
Embryo) and Formation of organs (derivatives of three germinal layers in embrgo) General
aspects of placenta and Extra embryonic membranes.
3.4- Growth in animals: Cellular growth, growth rate and growth curve, hormonal control on
growth. Mechanism and types of Regeneration. Ageing- Cellular, Extra cellular and
physiological changes. Role of exercise & diet on ageining. Theories of ageing.
Unit 4- Ecology and Environment:
4.1- Organism and its environment : Composition of environment. Factors- Air, water, soil,
light, temperature, Range of tolerance. Ecological adoptations.
4.2- Levels of Organisation : Population, species, community, ecosystem and biosphere.
Ecological interaction-symbiosis, mutualism commonsalism, Parasitism, Predation,
4.3- Ecosystem: Structure and functions, Productivity, Energy flow, Ecological efficiencies
Decomposition and nutrient cycling. Study of major Biotic Communities Lake - forest,
grassland, deserts (with reference to the State ecological point of view).
4.4- Biotic succession : Ecological succession : types and mechanism.
4.5- Natural resources-Types Conservation of important natural resources : Role of Human in
use and missuses of natural resources- Medicinal and Economically useful plants & Animals'
products (Chlorophytrum, Asparagus, Stiwia, Amla, Ashwagandha, Honey, Lac, Pearl, Cow
Unine & Snake venom etc.) Efforts for alternate arrangement of resources.
4.6- Environmental Pollution : Effect of different pollutants on biotic community and positive
aspect to eradicate pollution.
4.7- Global environmental changes- Green house effect, global warming, sea level rise, Effect
of Ozone layer depletion on living beings.
4.8- Biotic resources : Terrestrial and aquatic resources, Biodiversity- Assesment of benefits
and losses, Natural and industrial tragidies, study of endengered species- extinction threatened
species. Conservation of protected areas - Efforts of national, international and other
agancies. Government and Non-government policies on environment. Consept on
enivronment in Indian Culture, Ethics. Legistation on environment.
Unit 5- Biology and Human welfare:
5.1 Development of population and environment- Population- Factors of population growth,
National, social and personal efforts on population Control. Effect of population on Nature -
Birth rate, Death rate Emigration and Amigration. Study of population growth in relation to
sex and age ratio. Reproductive health - Common problems of adolescence. Elementary
knowledge about Sex Health Education, Moral values and social responsibilities. General
knowledge about sex related diseases. Mental and addiction related diseases- Impractical
use of Drugs and Antibiotics and risks developed from their excessive use. Yoga- Study and
5.2- Food production: Management , Study of common methods plantation (Grafting Scaling,
seed Sowing and tissue culture) Hybridization, improvment in varieties (wheat, maize, Cow,
and Hen). Bio fertilizer- Production of Wormi compost, Nadip, Tanke. Description of common
crops, wheat rice, gram, ground nut and Jetropha and Karang for bio fuels. Comman diseases
of the following animals (cow, dog,hen,rat). Biopestiside - Uses, Preparation of pestiside
from Neem, Madar and Datura. Benifits and hazards. Genetically modified food- Hybrid
Crop, vegetables, and fruit etc. Perfect agriculture-general account of Organic agriculture
5.3- Modern concept of health in Biology and improvement in Human Race- Knowledge of
modern technique of Vaccination. Application of Biotechnology. Treatment with modern
technique of AIDS, STD and Cancer immune disorder, Cancer diseases (types, diagnosis,
reasons and treatment). General knowledge of Biological war, Bio pyracy and Bio potent.
Biotechnology, Microbiology and Forensic science as a commercial subject, Hormone,
interferan and immunomodulation, study the applied aspect of biology for the welfore of Human
society. (Eugenics & Euthenics)
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