Andhra Pradesh Board Biology Syllabus for Class 11
Andhra Pradesh Board Syllabus for Class 11 Biology
Unit 1: The living world and environment
Biology and its branches; Relationship with other branches of seience, scientific method in
biology. Historical aspect of Biology. Basic Indian concept scope of Biology, its importance
Role of Biology in desbelling myths and social misbelief. Characters of living beings (Metabolism,
Transfer of energy at molecular level, Open and close system. Homeostasis, Growth,
Reproduction, Adaptation, Survival and prelimenary knowledge of death.)
Relationship of Biology with environment : Indian concept of environment, Wild life and
forest conservation. Effect of environment on organisms- Pollution, sources of pollution and its
effect on environment (Air, Water, Soil), Role of Human in keeping the Environment clean.
(Environment management, Conservation of nature).
Origin of life and its evolution- Various theories of Origin of life. Indian theories. Oparin
Haldane theory, Miller's experiment, elementory knowledge of nature, Theories of Evolution
Evidences, Darwin's theory and its modern concept.
Unit 2: Diversity of Life
2.1 Various kinds of organisms, necessity of classification, History and kinds of
classification:-Natural, Artificial, and Phylogenetic systems, Biosystematics, Binomial
nomenclature, Two and Five kingdom of classification, Their merits and demerits. Structure of
Virus, and Bacteria (Monera), its place and significance in living world. General characterstics
of Protista, and Fungi, Study of Botanical gardens, Herbaria and Bilogical museum.
2.2 Morphology and life cycle of Spirogyra, Mucor, Funaria, Selaginella, and Pinus (Elementary
2.3 Study of various plant groups - Classification of Angiosperm up to class level with examples.
(Bantham and Hooker's system of classification)
2.4 Animal kingdom - General cheracterstics of Animal, Non chordates upto phylum level and
Chordates upto class level.
Unit 3: Cell and Cell division
3.1 Cell as a unit of life: Discovery, Cell theory, Structure of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell.
Unicellular and multi cellular Organism. Ultra structure of cell (plant and animal). Konowledge
of tools and techniques to study organisms (Compound microscope, Electron microscope)
Compartmentalization, cell wall, cell membrane, UNIT MEMBRANE Unit membrance concept
(Fluid mosaic model), Membrane transport, Biological function of membrane, Cellular movement.
(Exocytosis and Endocytosis)
Cell Organelles- Structure and functions : Nucleus, Mitochondria, Plastids, Endoplasmic-
reticulum, Golgibody, Ribosomes, Lysosome, Microtubules, Centriole, Vacuole, Cytoskeleton,
Cilia, Flagella and other cell Inclusions.
3.2 Celluar molecule- Inorganic and organic molecules as a biomoleade Water, Salt, Mineral.
Carbohyedrate, Lipids, Aminoacid, Protein, Nucleic acid, Nucliotides, (DNA & RNA).
Enzyme- Properties, chemical nature and mechanism, Factors affecting the mechanism.
Significance of Vitamins, Hormones & Steroids as Bio-molecules.
3.3 Cell Division:- Definition, types, various stages and significance of Amoitosis, Mitosis and Meiosis.
Units 4: Genetics
Continuity of life:- Herediey & Variations, Mendel's laws of Inheritance- chorosomal basis of
inheitance, other patterns of Inheritance. Incomplete dominance, Multiple dominance Quantitative
4.2Structure and function of Bacterial Chromosome. Eukaryotic chromosome- Sturucture and function.
Prallelism between gene and chromosome. Genome, Linkage, Crossing over, Gene mapping,
Recombination, Sex chromosome, Somatic chromosome, Sex determination, Sex linkage. Mutation
and chromosomal aberration.
4.3 Human genetics:- Methods of study, DNA as a genetic material- Its structure and DNA
replication, duplication structure of RNA and its role in protein systhesis. Gene expression,
Transcription and Translation in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell.
Gene regulation- Expression and repression, House keeping gene, Nuclear basis of differentiation
and development, Genetic disorder and Genetic engineering, Cancer gene (oncogene), Cloning,
Gene bank, DNA finger printing, Genomics, Principles and application Transgenic microorganisim,
plants and animals.
UNIT 5: MULTICELLULARITY- PLANT AND ANIMAL LIFE:-
5.1 Plant morphology :- Root, Stem and Leaf-structure, function and modifications.
Flower and Inflorescences- Structure, function and Types.
Fruit and Seed : Types & Dispersal, Seed germination - Types & Necessary conditions.
Description of the following familes- Graminae, Liliaceae, Fabecaceae, Crucifereae, Solanaceae,
Leguminoceae & compositeae. Description of a following plant in botanical terminology with symbolic
knowledge of floral formula and floral diagram.
Plant Tissues: Structure, Kinds, Location and functions of various types of tissues.
Internal structure (Anatomy) of Moncot and Dicot Root, Stem and Leaf, including secondary
growth in Root and Stem.
5.2 Morphology of Animals : External morphology of Earthworm, Cockroach and Rat.
Animals Tissues- Structure, Location, Kinds and functions of various types of Animal tissues.
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